As defined by the Cleasby & Vigfusson Old Norse to English dictionary:
sumar Old Norse word can mean:
- n., dat. sumri; pl. sumur; sumra, sumrum; in the old language this word was masculine in the form sumarr, of which gender a trace may still be seen in the contracted forms sumri, sumra, sumrum, for a genuine neuter does not admit these contractionS. But there remains a single instance of the actual use of the masculine in the rhyme of a verse of the beginning of the 11th century, sumar hvern frekum erni, Skálda,—from which one might infer that at that time the word was still masc.; if so, it is not likely that in a poem so old as the Vsp. it would be neuter, and ‘sumur’ in ‘of sumur eptir’ perhaps ought to be corrected ‘sumra’ or ‘sumar’ (acc. sing.); as also ‘varmt sumar’ should be ‘varmr sumarr,’ Vþm. 26: [A. S. sumar; a word common to all Teut. languages; in the Orm. sumerr, denoting a long u; the mod. Dan., Germ., and Engl. have sommer, summer, with a double m]:—a summer, passim.
- II. mythical, Sumarr, the son of Svásað, Edda 13.
- B. CHRONOLOGICAL REMARKS.—The old Northmen, like the Icel. of the present time, divided the year into two halves, summer and winter; the summer began on the Thursday next before the 16th of April in the old calendar, which answers to the 26th of the Gregorian calendar (used in Icel. since A. D. 1700). The Northern and Icelandic summer is therefore a fixed term in the calendar, and consists of 184 days, viz. six months of thirty days, plus four days, called aukanætr (‘eke-nights’). Summer is divided into two halves, each of three months (= ninety days), before and after midsummer (mið-sumar); and the four ‘eke-nights’ are every summer intercalated immediately before midsummer: thus in the Icel. Almanack of 1872—Sumar-dagr fyrsti, or the first summer-day, falls on Thursday the 25th of April; Auka-nætr from the 24th to the 27th of July; Mið-sumar on the 28th of July; Sumar-dagr síðasti, or the last day of summer, on the 25th of October; cp. sumar-nátt siðasta, Gísl. 67. In mod. usage the time from April to October is counted by the summer weeks, the first, second, … twentieth … week of the summer, and in Icel. Almanacks every Thursday during summer is marked by the running number of the week. The ancients, too, counted the summer by weeks, but only down to midsummer, thus, tíu vikur skulu vera af sumri er menn koma til alþingis, K. Þ. K. 166; but in the latter part of the summer they counted either by the weeks from midsummer or by the weeks still left of the summer, thus, hálfum mánaði eptir mitt sumar, Nj. 4; er átta vikur lifa sumars, Grág. i. 122; frá miðju sumri til vetrar, 147; er átta vikur eru til vetrar, Nj. 192; er tveir mánaðir vóru til vetrar, 195; líðr á sumarit til átta vikna, 93; ellipt., var Rútr heima til sex vikna (viz. sumars), 10.
- C. COMPDS: sumarauki, sumarávöxtr, sumarbjörg, sumarbók, sumarbú, sumarbær, sumardagr, sumarfang, sumarfullr, sumargamall, sumargjöf, sumarhagi, sumarherbergi, sumarhiti, sumarhluti, sumarhold, sumarhöll, sumarkaup, sumarlangt, sumarliði, sumarligr, sumarmagn, sumarmál, sumarnátt, sumarnætr, SumarPáskar, sumarsetr, sumarskeið, sumarstefna, sumarsöngr, sumartíð, sumartími, sumartungl, sumarverk, sumarviðr.
Possible runic inscription in Younger Futhark:ᛋᚢᛘᛅᚱ
Younger Futhark runes were used from 8th to 12th centuries in Scandinavia and their overseas settlements
- A. S.
- A. D.
- Anno Domini.
- elliptical, elliptically.
- Iceland, Icelander, Icelanders, Icelandic.
Works & Authors cited:
- Skálda. (H. I.)
- Völuspá. (A. I.)
- Vafþrúðnis-mál. (A. I.)
- Edda. (C. I.)
- Gísla Saga. (D. II.)
- Grágás. (B. I.)
- K. Þ. K.
- Kristinn-réttr Þorláks ok Ketils = Kristinna-laga-þáttr. (B. I.)
- Njála. (D. II.)
Also available in related dictionaries:
This headword also appears in dictionaries of other languages descending from Old Norse.