Einn

Old Norse Dictionary - einn

Meaning of Old Norse word "einn" in English.

As defined by the Cleasby & Vigfusson Old Norse to English dictionary:

einn Old Norse word can mean:

einn
adj., pl. einir, acc. sing. einn, but also einan, esp. in the sense al-einan etc.; [Gr. εἱς, εν; Lat. ūnus, and early Lat. oinos; Ulf. ains; A. S. ân; Engl. one, in E. Engl. proncd. like stone, bone; Scot. ane; Swed. en; Dan. een]:—one.
einn
A. Cardinal number, one; einn, tveir, þrír …, opp. to báðir, fleiri, etc.; einum eðr fleirum, Grág. i. 108; eina sök eðr fleiri, 78; unnu báðir eins verk, FaS. i. 515; einum ok einum, one by one, ii. 252; tveir menn veðmæltu um einn grip, Grág. i. 412.
einn
2. in old poems it is used as an ordinal number; Urð hétu eina, aðra Verðandi, Vsp. 20; segðu þat it eina …, opp. to þat it annat, Vþm. 20; hjálp heitir eitt, help ranks first, Hm. 147, Vkv. 2; but this use is quite obsolete.
einn
3. with the notion of sameness, one and the same (unus et idem;) í einu húsi, in the same house, Grág. ii. 42; ein ero lög um, hvárt sem ero naut eðr sauðir, i. 422; allt á eina leið, all one way, FmS. ii. 315; til einnar gistingar báðir, vii. 274; í einu brjósti, Alm. 36; allr einn, the very same, Nj. 213.
einn
II. indefinite, a, an, a certain one; einn vetr, a winter, FmS. i. 57; einn dag, x. 11, FaS. i. 514; eitt kveld, Ld. 38; einn hinn versti maðr, Fær. 91; Breiðlingr einn, a man from Broaddale, Sturl. ii. 249; einn vinr Þóris, a certain friend of Thorir, FmS. vi. 277: einn as the indefinite article is hardly found in old writers; and though it is freq. in the Bible, sermons, hymns, etc., since the Reformation, it was no doubt borrowed from the German, and has never been naturalised.
einn
β. about, before numbers; ein tvau hundruð vaðmála, about two hundred pieces, SkS. 30; einar fimm þúsudir, about three thousand, Al. 111,—obsolete, in mod. usage hérum-bil or the like.
einn
III. alone, Gr. μόνος, Lat. solus, used both in sing. and plur.; Guðrún skyldi ein ráða, Ld. 132; Hallr tók einn upp fang, 38; láta einan, to let alone; láttu mig Drottinn einan ekki, PasS. 34. 11; as a law term, to let one’s wife alone, þá lét hann eina Guðrúnu, FmS. x. 324 (cp. einlát); Gunnarr mundi vera einn heima, Nj. 113; sjá einn hlutr, that one thing only, 112; þau ein tíðendi (plur.), only such news, 242.
einn
β. if put after the noun, einn denotes, only, but, sheer, and is almost adverb.; segja þetta prett einn, a mere trick, Sturl. ii. 249; raufar einar, all in holes, Nj. 176; urðu borðin í blóði einu, the tables were bedabbled with blood all over, 270, Ó. H. 116; öll orðin at hvölum einum, all turned into whales, FaS. i. 372; gabb eitt ok háð, sheer mockery, SkS. 247; orð ein, mere words, Nj. 123; ígangs-klæði ein, Eg. 75; vin eitt, wine only, Gm. 19; heiptyrði ein, Fm. 9; hamingjur einar, Vþm. 49; ofsamenn einir, Ld. 158; þá nótt eina, for that one night, n. G. l. i. 240: also after an adj., lítið eina, only a little, Stj. 177; þat eina, er hann ætti sjálfr, Eg. 47, FmS. v. 303; nema góðs eina, naught but good, Eg. 63; fátt eitt, few only, but few; vilt eitt, but what is agreeable, Hm. 125; mikit eitt skala manni gefa, a proverb, ‘small gifts shew great love,’ 51; sá einn, er …, he only, who …, 17; satt eitt, sooth only, Fm. 9; the sense differs according as the adj. is placed before or after the noun, einn Guð, the one God; but, Guð einn, God only, none but God.
einn
IV. plur. in a distributive sense, single; ein gjöld, a single weregild, opp. to tvenn, þrenn, fern, double, triple, quadruple, Grág. ii. 232; thus Icel. say, einir sokkar, skór, vetlingar, a pair of socks, shoes, gloves; einar brækr, a pair of breeches; also with nouns which have only plur., e. g. ein, tvenn, þrenn Jól, one, two, three Christmasses (Yules); einar (tvennar) dyrr, a single … door; eina Páska, one Easter.
einn
V. gen. pl. einna is used in an intensive sense; einna manna bezt, best of all single men, FmS. ix. 258; í mesta lagi einna manna, foremost of all single men, Bjarn. 65; fátt er svá einna hluta, at örvænt sé at hitti annat slíkt, Ó. H. 75.
einn
β. ellipt., manna, hluta, or the like being omitted, einna becomes almost an adverbial phrase, by far, exceedingly; at engi viti einna miklogi görr (= einna manna), that no one (no single man) shall know it much better, Grág. i. 2; einna verst, by far the worst, Orkn. 162, Nj. 38; einna sizt, by far the least, least of all, FmS. i. 37; einna mest verðr, Ld. 8; er einna var ríkastr, who was the mightiest of all, FmS. i. 297; engan rétt einna meir kunnan at göra (= einna rétta meir), SkS. 22; engi er einna hvatastr (= e. manna), there is none so mighty but be may find his match, Hm. 63: in mod. usage einna, joined with a superlative, is used adverbially, e. beztr, e. fljótastr, the best, the fleetest, but in a somewhat depreciatory sense.
einn
VI. used adverb.:
einn
1. gen. sing. eins,
einn
α. eins ok, as, as if; eins ok væri hann með öllu óttalauss, Hkr. iii. 275; allt eins ok (just as) rakkar metja með tungu, Stj. 392.
einn
β. likewise, in the same way; mikill þorri var þat er þær sögðu eins báðar, Landn. (Hb.) 320; this use of eins is very rare in old writers, but freq. in mod. use; in the spoken language at least ‘eins’ (= as) has almost replaced the old ‘sem.
einn
γ. only; er ek hefi áðr spurn til eins, FmS. iv. 139 (rare).
einn
δ. at eins, only, but, Grág. i. 235; vel at eins, ironically, well enough, Ld. 248; eigi at eins, not only, FmS. i. 266; með sínum at eins kostnaði, vii. 184; því at eins, only in that case, Nj. 228; þar at eins, Ísl. ii. 400; allt eins, not the less for that, 216: in mod. use, just as (vide allr A. v. 5).
einn
2. dat. at einu = at eins; údauðr at einu, Ld. 242; því at einu = því at eins, FmS. iv. 195; því at einu er rétt …, Grág. i. 164; svá at einu, id., Nj. 103; sá evkr syndir sínar at einu, he but adds to his sins, Hom. 157; allt at einu, all the same, Ísl. ii. 216, v. l.: af því einu, only because, Mork. 140.
einn
B. Joined to another pronominal adj. or adv.:
einn
I. einn hverr, adj. pron., in old writers usually in two words and with a double declension (see below), but now and then (and in mod. usage always) in a single word, einn being indecl.; einhverja (acc. f.), Hbl. 30; einhverjum (dat. sing.), Hm. 122, FmS. x. 71; einhverjo héraði, Al. 98, Nj. 2; einhverra (gen.), FmS. iv. 75; einhverir (nom. pl.), viii. 202; einhver, einhverir, etc.: the form eins-hverr is peculiar, keeping the gen. indecl. through all the cases, nom. einshverr, n. G. l. i. 6; acc. einshverja, Stj. 156, 655 xxxii. 18, Gþl. 135; dat. einshverjum, Stj. 22, 442, 448; this form seems to be chiefly Norse, is very rare in old writers, and now quite obsolete; neut. sing. eitthvert, Vm. 73, or eitthvat, Stj. 442, the mod. usage makes a distinction, and uses eitthvert only as adj., eitthvað as subst.:
einn
1. each one, each single one; maðr er einn hverr, Edda 108; þær eru svá margar, at ein hver má vel endask, Eg. 414; ór þeirra fjórðungi sem ór einum hverjum öðrum, Íb. ch. 5; skal einn hverr (each) þeirra nefna sér vátta, Grág. i. 74; jafnmikinn arf sem einn hverr (each) sona hans, Sturl. ii. 77; fátt er svá herra einhverra hluta, of any single thing, FmS. iv. 175.
einn
β. joined to a superl. it strengthens the sense; ágætastr maðr einn hverr, one of the very first men, Nj. 282; vinsælastr höfðingi einhverr, highly popular, FmS. vii. 4; einhver drengilegust vörn, ix. 515.
einn
2. in an indefinite sense, some, somebody, a certain one; eitthvert ríki, SkS. 350; eina hverja nótt, some night, 686 B. 4; eitthvert sinn, once, sometime, Sturl. i. 77, Nj. 79; einhverju sinni, id., 2; einhvern dag, some day, FmS. v. 177, Ísl. ii. 212; eina hverja þessa tíð, about this time, n. G. l. i. 355; til einnar hverrar stefnu, to some meeting, Fb. i. 354; eins-hverja hluti, Stj. 156; með eins-hverjum sveini, 442; at ekki sé minna vert, at hlýða prests-messu nývígðs hinni fyrstu, heldr en biskups-messu einhverri, BS. i. 131.
einn
β. used as subst.; einn hverr várr búandanna, FmS. i. 34; einn hvern manna hans, Eg. 258; einhverr í hverjum dal, Ld. 258, Nj. 192.
einn
γ. einhver-staðar (eins-hver-staðar, FmS. vii. 84), adv. somewhere, Grett. 130, FmS. iv. 57, Sd. 181.
einn
II. einn-saman, adj. ‘one together’ (vide einsamall), i. e. quite alone; maðrinn lifir ekki af einu-saman brauði, Matth. iv. 4; með einni-saman sinni sýn, með einni-saman sinni þefan, Stj. 93; ef útlegðir fara einar-saman, if it be solely a matter of outlay (fine), Grág. i. 103; ef þat færi eitt-saman, ii. 10: of a woman, vera eigi ein-saman, to be not alone, to be with a child, FmS. iii. 109.
einn
III. with other words; einir … ýmissir, ‘one and sundry;’ various, mixed, Stj. 88, 204; eina hluti ok ýmissa, Fb. i. 191.
einn
β. hverr ok einn, ‘each and one,’ every one, 677. 1, H. E. i. 393, Rb. 492; fyrir hvern mun ok einn, FaS. i. 396.
einn
γ. einn ok sér-hverr, one and all.
einn
δ. einn sér, apart, for oneself, alone; Múspells-synir hafa einir sér fylking, Edda 41; einn sér, sole, FmS. ii. 308; sér einir, Sturl. ii. 53: metaph. singular, peculiar, ein var hón sér í lýðsku, FS. 30.
einn
ε. sér-hverr, adj. every one, q. v.: eins-konar, adv. of one kind, Skálda 165; mod. indef. of a certain kind, a kind of: eins-kostar, adv. particularly, Ísl. ii. 322, Mork. 81.
einn
ζ. né einn, not one, none; in old writers usually so, but now and then contracted neinn (q. v.), and in mod. usage always so; né eina sekð, Grág. i. 136; né eitt úhreint, Stj. 409; né einu sinni, not once, FmS. xi. 13; né eins, not a single thing, 112; né eina herferð, vii. 28.
einn
η. fáir einir, only a few, in mod. usage in one word, nom. fáeinir, dat. fáeinum, gen. fáeinna: ein-stakr, single, q. v.: al-einn, alone, q. v.: ein-mana, q. v. (cp. Gr. μόνος): einum-megin, adv. on one side, Nj. 248 (vide vegr).

Possible runic inscription in Younger Futhark:ᛁᛁᚾᚾ
Younger Futhark runes were used from 8th to 12th centuries in Scandinavia and their overseas settlements

Abbreviations used:

acc.
accusative.
adj.
adjective.
A. S.
Anglo-Saxon.
Dan.
Danish.
Engl.
English.
esp.
especially.
etc.
et cetera.
f.
feminine.
gl.
glossary.
Gr.
Greek.
l.
line.
Lat.
Latin.
n.
neuter.
pl.
plural.
proncd.
pronounced.
S.
Saga.
Scot.
Scottish.
sing.
singular.
Swed.
Swedish.
Ulf.
Ulfilas.
opp.
opposed.
m.
masculine.
v.
vide.
freq.
frequent, frequently.
mod.
modern.
cp.
compare.
plur.
plural.
adverb.
adverbially.
L.
Linnæus.
s. v.
sub voce.
e. g.
exempli gratia.
Icel.
Iceland, Icelander, Icelanders, Icelandic.
gen.
genitive.
ellipt.
elliptical, elliptically.
dat.
dative.
id.
idem, referring to the passage quoted or to the translation
v. l.
varia lectio.
adv.
adverb.
decl.
declined.
indecl.
indeclinable.
neut.
neuter.
nom.
nominative.
pron.
pronoun.
subst.
substantive.
ch.
chapter.
superl.
superlative.
i. e.
id est.
metaph.
metaphorical, metaphorically.
def.
definite.
indef.
indefinite.
q. v.
quod vide.

Works & Authors cited:

Fas.
Fornaldar Sögur. (C. II.)
Grág.
Grágás. (B. I.)
Hm.
Hává-mál. (A. I.)
Vkv.
Völundar-kviða. (A. II.)
Vsp.
Völuspá. (A. I.)
Vþm.
Vafþrúðnis-mál. (A. I.)
Alm.
Alvís-mál. (A. I.)
Fms.
Fornmanna Sögur. (E. I.)
Nj.
Njála. (D. II.)
Fær.
Færeyinga Saga. (E. II.)
Ld.
Laxdæla Saga. (D. II.)
Sturl.
Sturlunga Saga. (D. I.)
Al.
Alexanders Saga. (G. I.)
Sks.
Konungs Skugg-sjá. (H. II.)
Pass.
Passiu-Sálmar.
Eg.
Egils Saga. (D. II.)
Fm.
Fafnis-mál. (A. II.)
Gm.
Grímnis-mál. (A. I.)
N. G. L.
Norges Gamle Love. (B. II.)
Ó. H.
Ólafs Saga Helga. (E. I.)
Stj.
Stjórn. (F. I.)
Bjarn.
Bjarnar Saga. (D. II.)
Orkn.
Orkneyinga Saga. (E. II.)
Hkr.
Heimskringla. (E. I.)
Hb.
Hauks-bók. (H. IV.)
Landn.
Landnáma. (D. I.)
Hom.
Homiliu-bók. (F. II.)
Mork.
Morkinskinna. (E. I.)
Gþl.
Gulaþings-lög. (B. II.)
Hbl.
Harbarðs-ljóð. (A. I.)
Vm.
Vilkins-máldagi. (J. I.)
Edda
Edda. (C. I.)
Íb.
Íslendinga-bók. (D. I.)
Bs.
Biskupa Sögur. (D. III.)
Fb.
Flateyjar-bók (E. I.)
Grett.
Grettis Saga. (D. II.)
Sd.
Svarfdæla Saga. (D. II.)
H. E.
Historia Ecclesiastica Islandiae. (J. I.)
Rb.
Rímbegla. (H. III.)
Fs.
Forn-sögur. (D. II.)
Skálda
Skálda. (H. I.)
➞ See all works cited in the dictionary
Back