Efri

Old Norse Dictionary - efri

Meaning of Old Norse word "efri" in English.

As defined by the Cleasby & Vigfusson Old Norse to English dictionary:

efri Old Norse word can mean:

efri
compar.; EFSTR, superl.; older form öfri, Hkv. 2. 36, Ó. H. ch. 248 (in a verse), Greg. 42, n. G. l. i. 10, 384, Íb. 5, Hom. 116; öfstr, FmS. x. 394, 686 C. 2, LS. 50, 51, Hbl. 18, Edda 115, 116 (Gl.); compar. and superl. without the positive [as Lat. superior, supremus, Gr. ὑπέρτερος], but formed from the root syllable ‘of-,’ cp. ofar, yfir; very old MSS. therefore mostly spell with ö, a vowel change of o; the mod. form, as well as that of most MSS., is with e, efri, efstr, Am. 50, Og. 23:
efri
I. the upper, higher; the phrase, bera efra skjöld, to carry the higher shield, i. e. carry the day, FmS. x. 394 (MS. æfra): opp. to neðri = upper, at Mosfelli enu öfra, Íb. 5: the adverb, phrase ‘it efra’ denoting the upper or inland road, opp. to the shore; allt hit efra suðr, Eg. 58; sumir fóru it efra til Þríhyrnings-hálsa, Nj. 207; hit efra um Upplönd, FmS. i. 22: by land, opp. to the sea, Hkr. ii. 8: of the inner part of a building, opp. to fremri or the part nearest the door, Eg. 43: in the air, opp. to the earth, SkS. 115: superl. efstr, the hindermost, e. liðr, the hindermost joint, 623. 32: neut. efst as adv. highest up, uppermost, efst á stólpanum, 655 xxv. 2.
efri
β. metaph. superior, better; er öllum öfri er, Greg. 43.
efri
II. the latter, last part:
efri
1. temp., á efra aldri, in the decline of life, Eg. 4; inn öfri, the latter, opp. to fyrri, n. G. l. i. 342; efri hluti sumars, in the decline of summer, Eg. 712; Ólafs-messa hin öfri (= síðari), the latter (i. e. second) day of St. Olave (viz. Aug. 3), opp. to Ólafs-messa fyrri (July 29), n. G. l. i. 10; efsti dómr, the last judgment, Stj. 58; öfsti dómr, id., 686 l. c.; efsta vika, the last week of Lent = the Passion week, Orkn. 386, Mar. 78; öfsti dagr Paska, the last day in Easter, n. G. l. i. 348; efsta bæn, the last prayer, 623. 50; þeim gef ek erni efstum bráðir, FaS. i. 429 (in a verse); efsta sinni, for the last time, 227; þó vér ritim hana öfri en aðrar, Hom. 116.
efri
2. loc., where aptari and aptastr or eptri and eptstr are the common words; fyrstr and efstr are opposed, foremost and last, in a rank, LS. l. c.; sá fyrstr er efstr gekk inn, Grág. i. 32.

Possible runic inscription in Younger Futhark:ᛁᚠᚱᛁ
Younger Futhark runes were used from 8th to 12th centuries in Scandinavia and their overseas settlements

Abbreviations used:

ch.
chapter.
compar.
comparative.
cp.
compare.
Gr.
Greek.
l.
line.
L.
Linnæus.
Lat.
Latin.
m.
masculine.
mod.
modern.
S.
Saga.
superl.
superlative.
v.
vide.
adv.
adverb.
i. e.
id est.
neut.
neuter.
opp.
opposed.
metaph.
metaphorical, metaphorically.
id.
idem, referring to the passage quoted or to the translation
l. c.
loco citato.
n.
neuter.
temp.
temporal.
viz.
namely.
loc.
local, locally.

Works & Authors cited:

Am.
Atla-mál. (A. II.)
Edda
Edda. (C. I.)
Fms.
Fornmanna Sögur. (E. I.)
Greg.
Gregory. (F. II.)
Hbl.
Harbarðs-ljóð. (A. I.)
Hkv.
Helga-kviða Hundingsbana. (A. II.)
Hom.
Homiliu-bók. (F. II.)
Íb.
Íslendinga-bók. (D. I.)
Ls.
Loka-senna. (A. I.)
N. G. L.
Norges Gamle Love. (B. II.)
Og.
Oddrúnar-grátr. (A. II.)
Ó. H.
Ólafs Saga Helga. (E. I.)
Eg.
Egils Saga. (D. II.)
Hkr.
Heimskringla. (E. I.)
Nj.
Njála. (D. II.)
Sks.
Konungs Skugg-sjá. (H. II.)
Aug.
Augustinus Saga. (F. III.)
Fas.
Fornaldar Sögur. (C. II.)
Mar.
Maríu Saga. (F. III.)
Orkn.
Orkneyinga Saga. (E. II.)
Stj.
Stjórn. (F. I.)
Grág.
Grágás. (B. I.)
➞ See all works cited in the dictionary
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