Efni

Old Norse Dictionary - efni

Meaning of Old Norse word "efni" in English.

As defined by the Cleasby & Vigfusson Old Norse to English dictionary:

efni Old Norse word can mean:

efni
n. [Swed. ämne = stuff, materia, and Dan. ævne = achievement]:—a stuff, originally like Lat. materia, timber; and so the stuff or material out of which a thing is wrought; auðskæf mærðar e., Ad. 16; at allir hlutir væri smíðaðir af nokkru efni, that all things were wrought (created) of some stuff, Edda 147 (pref.); skapa af engu efni, to create from nothing (of God), FmS. i. 304; efni (materials) til garðbóta, Grág. ii. 263, SkS. 287 (of a cloth); ek em görr af ústyrku efni, I am made of frail stuff, 543, Barl. 140, Stj. 17, 67; smíðar-efni, materials; efni-tré, a block, tree; efni í ljá, orf, etc., or of any piece fitted as materials.
efni
β. in a personal sense; manns-efni, a promising young man: karls-efni, a thorough man, a nickname, Landn.: the proverb, engi veit hvar sæls manns efni sitr, of youths of whom no one can tell what may be hidden in them; þegns e. = manns-efni, Stor. 11: gott manns-e., gott bónda-e., promising to be an able man; and on the other hand, ónýtt, illt manns-e., in whom there is nothing.
efni
γ. merely in temp. sense, applied to persons designate or elect; konungs-e., a crown prince; biskups-e., a bishop-elect; brúðar-e., a bride-elect; konu-e., one’s future wife.
efni
δ. a subject, of a story, book, or the like, Lat. argumentum, plot; yrkis e., Íd. 11; e. kvæða, a plot, subject for poetry; sögu-e., a subject for tales or history; in old writers it rarely occurs exactly in this sense: the contents of a written thing, bréfs-e., efni í bók; hence efnis-laust, adj. void, empty writing; efnis-leysa, u, f. emptiness in writing; Björn hafði ort flim um Þórð, en þau vóru þar efni í, at …, but that was the subject of the poem, that …, Bjarn. 42; þótti mönnum þar mikit um, hversu mikil efni þar vóru til seld, i. e. people thought the tale interesting, Ld. 200; eigi með sönnu efni, falsely, with untrue statements, Sturl. iii. 305: hvárt efni þeir höfðu í um rógit, how they had made (mixed) their lies up, Eg. 59; meir en efni sé til seld, i. e. (related) more than what was true, the tale was overdone, BS. i. 137; talar af sama efni (subject) sem fyrrum, FmS. ix. 252.
efni
2. metaph. a matter, affair; til sanninda um sagt e., Dipl. i. 8; segir konungi frá öllu þessu e., Sturl. i. 3; er þat merkjanda í þessu e., Rb. 250; fátt er betr látið enn efni eru til (a proverb), few things are reported better than they really are, Band. 2; fyrir hvert efni, for this reason.
efni
β. a cause, reason; látask báðir af því e., both died from this cause, Ísl. ii. 197; með hverju e. Sturla hefði þessa för gört, what was the reason of S.’s doing so? Sturl. ii. 132; gleði e., sorgar e., matter of joy, sorrow, etc.: the proverb, en hvert mál, er maðr skal dæma, verðr at líta á tilgörð með efnum (causes), Eg. 417; fyrir þat efni (for that reason) keypti hann landit, Hrafn. 22, H. E. i. 471; en þetta efni (cause) fundu þeir til, SkS. 311.
efni
γ. a state, condition, affair; Rútr sagði allt e. sitt, Nj. 4; í úvænt efni, a hopeless state, Band. (MS.) 13, Ísl. ii. 225; ek veit eigi görla efni Gunnlaugs, I know not how Gunlaug’s matters stand, 240; Helgi kvað eigi þat efni í, at láta lausan þjóf fjölkunnigan, H. said that it would never do, to let a thief and wizard go, Sturl. i. 62; ef þess eru efni, if that be so, Grág. i. 76; sér, hvers efni í eru, he saw how matters stood, Band. (MS.) 11; sagði hver efni í voru, said how matters stood, Nj. 99; mér þykir sem málum várum sé komið í únýtt efni, ef …, 150; munu ill efni í, some mischief may have happened, FS. 144; gott, þungt e., Karl. 402, BS. i. 815; e-t gengr, kemr svá til efnis, happens so and so, Mar. (Fr.); skipta sitt líf í betra e., to repent, id.; bera til efnis, to happen, Pr. 410.
efni
3. plur. means, ability; minni nytjamenn af meirum efnum en hann, Sturl. i. 126; eptir sínum efnum, to the best of their ability, Hom. 123; ok bjoggusk um eptir þeim efnum sem þeir höfðu til, Orkn. 360; sjái þér nökkuð ráð (possibility) eðr efni vár (means), 358; grunar mik, at Þórólfr muni eigi görr kunna at sjá efni sín, i. e. I fear that Th. will overrate his own means, power, Eg. 76; þá væri þat efni nú í vóru máli, it would be a chance for us, FmS. ix. 239; þar vóru engi efni önnur, there was no other chance, xi. 144; nú eru þess eigi efni, if that be impossible, Grág. ii. 140; hér eru engin efni til þess at ek muna svíkja hann, i. e. I will by no means deceive him, it is out of the question that I should do so, Eg. 60.
efni
β. in mod. usage, means, property, riches.
efni
COMPDS: efnafæð, efnalauss, efnaleysi, efnalítill, efnaskortr.

Possible runic inscription in Younger Futhark:ᛁᚠᚾᛁ
Younger Futhark runes were used from 8th to 12th centuries in Scandinavia and their overseas settlements

Abbreviations used:

Dan.
Danish.
etc.
et cetera.
f.
feminine.
l.
line.
Lat.
Latin.
n.
neuter.
pref.
preface.
Swed.
Swedish.
temp.
temporal.
adj.
adjective.
i. e.
id est.
metaph.
metaphorical, metaphorically.
pl.
plural.
S.
Saga.
Fr.
French in etymologies.
id.
idem, referring to the passage quoted or to the translation
m.
masculine.
plur.
plural.
mod.
modern.

Works & Authors cited:

Ad.
Arinbjarnar-drápa. (A. III.)
Barl.
Barlaams Saga. (F. III.)
Edda
Edda. (C. I.)
Fms.
Fornmanna Sögur. (E. I.)
Grág.
Grágás. (B. I.)
Sks.
Konungs Skugg-sjá. (H. II.)
Stj.
Stjórn. (F. I.)
Landn.
Landnáma. (D. I.)
Stor.
Sona-torrek. (A. III.)
Bjarn.
Bjarnar Saga. (D. II.)
Björn
Biörn Halldórsson.
Bs.
Biskupa Sögur. (D. III.)
Eg.
Egils Saga. (D. II.)
Íd.
Íslendinga-drápa. (A. III.)
Ld.
Laxdæla Saga. (D. II.)
Sturl.
Sturlunga Saga. (D. I.)
Band.
Banda-manna Saga. (D. II.)
Dipl.
Diplomatarium. (J. I.)
Rb.
Rímbegla. (H. III.)
H. E.
Historia Ecclesiastica Islandiae. (J. I.)
Hrafn.
Hrafnkels Saga. (D. II.)
Fr.
Fritzner’s Dictionary, 1867.
Fs.
Forn-sögur. (D. II.)
Karl.
Karla-magnús Saga. (G. I.)
Mar.
Maríu Saga. (F. III.)
Nj.
Njála. (D. II.)
Hom.
Homiliu-bók. (F. II.)
Orkn.
Orkneyinga Saga. (E. II.)
Th.
Theophilus. (F. III.)
➞ See all works cited in the dictionary
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