Dagr

Old Norse Dictionary - dagr

Meaning of Old Norse word "dagr" in English.

As defined by the Cleasby & Vigfusson Old Norse to English dictionary:

dagr Old Norse word can mean:

dagr
m., irreg. dat. degi, pl. dagar: [the kindred word dœgr with a vowel change from ó (dóg) indicates a lost root verb analogous to ala, ól, cp. dalr and dælir; this word is common to all Teutonic dialects; Goth. dags; A. S. dag; Engl. day; Swed.-Dan. dag; Germ. tag; the Lat. dies seems to be identical, although no interchange has taken place]
dagr
I. a day; in different senses:
dagr
1. the natural day:—sayings referring to the day, at kveldi skal dag leyfa, at eventide shall the day be praised, Hm. 80 ; allir dagar eiga kveld um síðir; mörg eru dags augu, vide auga; enginn dagr til enda tryggr, no day can be trusted till its end; allr dagr til stefnu, Grág. i. 395, 443, is a law phrase,—for summoning was lawful only if performed during the day; this phrase is also used metaph. = ‘plenty of time’ or the like: popular phrases as to the daylight are many—dagr rennr, or rennr upp, and kemr upp, the day rises, Bm. 1; dagr í austri, day in the east, where the daylight first appears; dagsbrún, ‘day’s brow,’ is the first streak of daylight, the metaphor taken from the human face; lysir af degi, it brightens from the day, i. e. daylight is appearing; dagr ljómar, the day gleams; fyrir dag, before day; móti degi, undir dag, about daybreak; komið at degi, id., FmS. viii. 398; dagr á lopti, day in the sky; árla, snemma dags, early in the morning, PasS. 15. 17; dagr um allt lopt, etc.; albjartr dagr, hábjartr d., full day, broad daylight; hæstr dagr, high day; önd-verðr d., the early day = forenoon, Am. 50; miðr dagr, midday, Grág. i. 413, 446, SkS. 217, 219; áliðinn dagr, late in the day, FaS. i. 313; hallandi dagr, declining day; at kveldi dags, síð dags, late in the day, FmS. i. 69. In the evening the day is said to set, hence dag-sett, dag-setr, and dagr setzt; in tales, ghosts and spirits come out with nightfall, but dare not face the day; singing merry songs after nightfall is not safe, það kallast ekki Kristnum leyft að kveða þegar dagsett er, a ditty; Syrpuvers er mestr galdr er í fólginn, ok eigi er lofat at kveða eptir dagsetr, FaS. iii. 206, Ísl. ÞjóðS. ii. 7, 8: the daylight is symbolical of what is true or clear as day, hence the word dagsanna, or satt sem dagr, q. v.
dagr
2. of different days; í dag, to-day, Grág. i. 16, 18, Nj. 36, Ld. 76, FmS. vi. 151; í gær-dag, yesterday; í fyrra dag, the day before yesterday,v. 50; í hinni-fyrra dag, the third day; annars dags, Vígl. 23, PasS. 50. I; hindra dags, the hinder day, the day after to-morrow, Hm. 109; dag eptir dag, day after day, Hkr. ii. 313; dag frá degi, from day to day, FmS. ii. 230; hvern dag frá öðrum, id., FmS. viii. 182; annan dag frá öðrum. id., Eg. 277; um daginn, during the day; á dögunum. the other day; nótt ok dag, night and day; liðlangan dag, the ‘life-long’ day; dögunum optar, more times than there are days, i. e. over and over again, FmS. x. 433; á deyjanda degi, on one’s day of death, Grág. i. 402.
dagr
β. regu-dagr, a rainy day: sólskins-dagr, a sunny day; sumar-dagr, a summer day; vetrar-dagr, a winter day; hátíðis-dagr, a feast day; fegins-dagr, a day of joy; dóms-dagr, the day of doom, judgment day, gl. 82, FmS. viii. 98; hamingju-dagr, heilla-dagr, a day of happiness; gleði-dagr, id.; brúðkaups-dagr, bridal-day; burðar-dagr, a birthday.
dagr
3. in pl. days in the sense of times; aðrir dagar, FmS. i. 216; ek ætlaða ekki at þessir dagar mundu verða, sem nú eru orðnir, Nj. 171; góðir dagar, happy days, FmS. xi. 286, 270; sjá aldrei glaðan dag (sing.), never to see glad days.
dagr
β. á e-s dögum, um e-s daga eptir e-s daga, esp. of the lifetime or reign of kings, FmS.; but in Icel. also used of the lögsögumaðr, Jb. repeatedly; vera á dögum, to be alive; eptir minn dag, ‘after my day,’ i. e. when I am dead.
dagr
γ. calendar days, e. g. Hvíta-dagar, the White days, i. e. Whitsuntide; Hunda-dagar, the Dog days; Banda-dagr, Vincula Petri; Höfuð-dagr, Decap. Johannis; Geisla-dagr, Epiphany; Imbru-dagar, Ember days; Gang-dagar, ‘Ganging days,’ Rogation days; Dýri-dagr, Corpus Christi; etc.
dagr
4. of the week-days; the old names being Sunnu-d. or Drottins-d., Mána-d., Týs-d., Öðins-d., Þórs-d., Frjá-d., Laugar-d. or Þvátt-d. It is hard to understand how the Icel. should be the one Teut. people that have disused the old names of the week-days; but so it was, vide Jóns S. ch. 24; fyrir bauð hann at eigna daga vitrum mönnum heiðnum, svá sem at kalla Týrsdag Óðinsdag, eðr Þórsdag, ok svá um alla vikudaga, etc., BS. i. 237, cp. 165. Thus bishop John (died A. D. 1121) caused them to name the days as the church does (Feria sccunda, etc.); viz. Þriði-d. or Þriðju-d., Third-day = Tuesday, Rb. 44, K. Þ. K. 100, Ísl. ii. 345; Fimti-d., Fifth-dayThursday, Rb. 42, Grág. i. 146, 464, 372, ii. 248, Nj. 274; Föstu-d., Fast-day = Friday; Miðviku-d., Midweek-day = Wednesday, was borrowed from the Germ. Mittwoch; throughout the 12th and 13th centuries, however, the old and new names were used indiscriminately. The question arises whether even the old names were not imported from abroad (England); certainly the Icel. of heathen times did not reckon by weeks; even the word week (vika) is probably of eccl. Latin origin (vices, recurrences). It is curious that the Scandinavian form of Friday, old Icel. Frjádagr, mod. Swed.-Dan. Fredag, is A. S. in form; ‘Frjá-,’ ‘Fre-,’ can hardly be explained but from A. S. Freâ-, and would be an irregular transition from the Norse form Frey. The transition of ja into mod. Swed.-Dan. e is quite regular, whereas Icel. ey (in Frey) would require the mod. Swed.-Dan. ö or u sound. Names of weekdays are only mentioned in Icel. poems of the 11th century (Arnór, Sighvat); but at the time of bishop John the reckoning by weeks was probably not fully established, and the names of the days were still new to the people. 5. the day is in Icel. divided according to the position of the sun above the horizon; these fixed traditional marks are called dags-mörk, day-marks, and are substitutes for the hours of modern times, viz. ris-mál or miðr-morgun, dag-mál, há-degi, mið-degi or mið-mundi, nón, miðr-aptan, nátt-mál, vide these wordS. The middle point of two day-marks is called jafn-nærri-báðum, in modern pronunciation jöfnu-báðu, equally-near-both, the day-marks following in the genitive; thus in Icel. a man asks, hvað er fram orðið, what is the time? and the reply is, jöfnubáðu miðsmorguns og dagmála, half-way between mid-morning and day-meal, or stund til (to) dagmála; hallandi dagmál, or stund af (past) dagmálum; jöfnu-báðu hádegis og dagmúla, about ten or half-past ten o’clock, etc. Those day-marks are traditional in every farm, and many of them no doubt date from the earliest settling of the country. Respecting the division of the day, vide Pál Vídal. S. v. Allr dagr til stefnu, Finnus Johann., Horologium Island., Eyktamörk Íslenzk (published at the end of the Rb.), and a recent essay of Finn Magnusson.
dagr
II. denoting a term, but only in compounds, dagi, a, m., where the weak form is used, cp. ein-dagi, mál-dagi, bar-dagi, skil-dagi.
dagr
III. jis a pr. name, Dagr, (freq.); in this sense the dat. is Dag, not Degi, cp. Óðinn léði Dag (dat.) geirs síns, Sæm. 114.
dagr
COMPDS: dagatal, dagsbrun, dagshelgi, dagsljós, dagsmark, dagsmegin, dagsmunr.

Possible runic inscription in Younger Futhark:ᛏᛅᚴᚱ
Younger Futhark runes were used from 8th to 12th centuries in Scandinavia and their overseas settlements

Abbreviations used:

A. S.
Anglo-Saxon.
cp.
compare.
Dan.
Danish.
dat.
dative.
Engl.
English.
Germ.
German.
gl.
glossary.
Goth.
Gothic.
irreg.
irregular.
l.
line.
Lat.
Latin.
m.
masculine.
n.
neuter.
pl.
plural.
S.
Saga.
Swed.
Swedish.
etc.
et cetera.
id.
idem, referring to the passage quoted or to the translation
i. e.
id est.
metaph.
metaphorical, metaphorically.
q. v.
quod vide.
v.
vide.
sing.
singular.
esp.
especially.
Icel.
Iceland, Icelander, Icelanders, Icelandic.
e. g.
exempli gratia.
A. D.
Anno Domini.
ch.
chapter.
eccl.
ecclesiastical.
mod.
modern.
s. v.
sub voce.
Teut.
Teutonic.
viz.
namely.
freq.
frequent, frequently.
pr.
proper, properly.

Works & Authors cited:

Am.
Atla-mál. (A. II.)
Bm.
Bjarka-mál. (A. II.)
Fas.
Fornaldar Sögur. (C. II.)
Fms.
Fornmanna Sögur. (E. I.)
Grág.
Grágás. (B. I.)
Hm.
Hává-mál. (A. I.)
Ísl. Þjóðs.
Íslenzkar Þjóðsögur.
Pass.
Passiu-Sálmar.
Sks.
Konungs Skugg-sjá. (H. II.)
Eg.
Egils Saga. (D. II.)
Háv.
Hávarðar Saga. (D. II.)
Hkr.
Heimskringla. (E. I.)
Ld.
Laxdæla Saga. (D. II.)
Nj.
Njála. (D. II.)
Vígl.
Víglundar Saga. (D. V.)
Jb.
Jóns-bók. (B. III.)
Bs.
Biskupa Sögur. (D. III.)
Jóns S.
Jóns Saga. (D. III.)
K. Þ. K.
Kristinn-réttr Þorláks ok Ketils = Kristinna-laga-þáttr. (B. I.)
Rb.
Rímbegla. (H. III.)
Vídal.
Vídalíns-Postilla.
Sæm.
Sæmundar Edda. (A, C. I.)
➞ See all works cited in the dictionary
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