Búa

Old Norse Dictionary - búa

Meaning of Old Norse word "búa" in English.

As defined by the Cleasby & Vigfusson Old Norse to English dictionary:

búa Old Norse word can mean:

búa
pret. sing. bjó, 2nd pers. bjótt, mod. bjóst; plur. bjoggu, bjöggu, and mod. bjuggu, or even buggu; sup. búit, búið, and (rarely) contr. búð; part. búinn; pret. subj. bjöggi, mod. byggi or bjyggi; pres. sing. indic. bý; pl. búm, mod. búum: reflex. forms býsk or býst, bjósk or bjóst, bjöggusk, búisk, etc.: poët. forms with suffixed negative bjó-at, Skv. 3. 39: an obsolete pret. bjoggi = bjó, FmS. ix. 440 (in a verse); bjöggisk = bjósk, Hom. 118. [Búa is originally a reduplicated and contracted verb answering to Goth. búan, of which the pret. may have been baibau: by bûan Ulf. renders Gr. οικειν, κατοικειν; Hel. bûan = habitare; Germ. bauen; Swed. and Dan. bo. The Icel. distinguishes between the strong neut. and originally redupl. verb búa, and the transit. and weak byggja, q. v.: búa seems to be kindred to Gr. φύω, εφυσα (cp. Sansk. bhû, bhavâmi, Lat. fui); byggja to Lat. făcio, cp. Swed.-Dan. bygga, Scot. and North. E. to ‘big,’ i. e. to build; cp. Lat. aedificare, nidificare: again, the coincidence in sense with the Gr. οικος, οικειν, Lat. vicus, is no less striking, cp. the references s. v. bú above. Búa, as a root word, is one of the most interesting words in the Scandin. tongues; bú, bær, bygg, bygð, byggja, etc., all belong to this family: it survives in the North. E. word to ‘big,’ in the Germ. bauen (to till), and possibly (v. above) in the auxiliary verb ‘to be.’]
búa
A. NEUTER, to live, abide, dwell, = Gr. οικειν, Lat. habitare; sú synd sem í mér býr, Rom. vii. 17, 20; í mér, þat er í mínu holdi, býr ekki gott, 18; hann sem býr í ljósinu, 1 Tim. vi. 16; fyrir Heilagan Anda sem í oss býr, 2 Tim. i. 14; Látið Christs orð ríkulega búa meðal yðar, Col. iii. 16; þá trú … sem áðr fyr bjó í þinni ömmu Loide, 2 Tim. i. 5; þat hit góða sem í oss býr, 14; hann sem býr í ljósinu, þar einginn kann til að komast, 1 Tim. vi. 16; hence íbúð, living in, etc.; in many of those passages some Edd. of n. T. use byggja, but búa suits better: of a temporary abode, hann bjó í tjöldum, he abode in tents, FmS. x. 413.
búa
2. a naut. term; þeir bjuggu þar um nóttina, they stayed, cast anchor during the night, Fms. v.i. 3: on board ship, to have one’s berth, sá maðr bjó á skipi næst Haraldi er hét Loðinn, 166; engi maðr skyldi búa á þessu skipi yngri en tvítugr, x. 321.
búa
3. to live together as man and wife; henni hagar að b. við hann, 1 Cor. vii. 12; hagar honum hjá henni að b., 13; b. með húsfrú sinni, Stj. 47; b. við; Helgi prestr bjó við konu þá, er Þórdís hét (of concubinage), Sturl. i. 141; but búa saman, of wedded life, K. Á. 134.
búa
4. b. fyrir, to be present in the place: at Selþórir muni fyrir b. í hverju holti, FmS. iv. 260: recipr., sjór ok skúgr bjoggusk í grend, Skálda 202, Baruch.
búa
5. esp. (v. bú) to have a household, cattle, sheep, and milk; hence búandi, bóndi, bær, and bú; búa við málnytu (milk), ok hafa kýr ok ær at búi, Nj. 236, Grág. i. 168, 335; b. búi (dat.), 153, K. Þ. K. 90; búa búi sínu, to ‘big ane’s ain biggin,’ have one’s own homestead.
búa
β. absol., meðan þú vilt b., so long as thou wilt keep bouse, Hrafn. 9; b. vel, illa, to be a good (bad) housekeeper; vænt er að kunna vel að búa, Bb. 3. 1; Salomon kóngur kunni að b., 100; fara að b., to begin housekeeping, 2. 6; b. á jörðu, to keep a farm, gefa þeim óðul sín er á bjoggu, FmS. i. 21.
búa
γ. búa á …, at …, i …, with the name of the place added, to live at or in a place; hann bjó á Velli (the farm) á Rangárvöllum (the county), Nj. 1; Höskuldr bjó á Höskuldstöðum, 2: hann bjó at Varmalæk, 22; hann bjó undir Felli, 16; Gunnarr bjó at Hlíðarenda, 29; Njáll bjó at Bergþórshváli, 30, 38, 147, 162, 164, 173, 174, 213, Landn. 39–41, and in numberless passages; Eb., Ld., Eg., Sturl., BS., Ísl. ii, etc. (very freq.): also b. í brjósti, skapi, huga e-m, to be, dwell in one’s mind, with the notion of rooted conviction or determination, þess hins mikla áhuga, er þér býr í brjósti, FmS. iv. 80; því er mér hefir lengi í skapi búit, 78; ekki muntu leynask fyrir mér, veit ek hvat í býr skapinu, Lv. 16.
búa
II. metaph. and with prepp.; b. um e-t, or b. yfir e-u, almost in an uncanny sense, to brood over hidden schemes, designs, resentment, or the like; búa um hverfan hug, to be of a fickle mind, Skv. 3. 39; b. eigi um heilt, to brood over something against one, to be insincere, FmS. xi. 365; b. um skoll, to brood over some deceit, id.; b. um grun, to be suspicious, ii. 87: in good sense, b. um eitt lunderni, to be of one mind, Jb. 17; b. um þrek, hug, to have a bold heart, Lex. poët.: b. í or undir e-u, to be at the bottom of a thing; en í þessu vináttu merki bjoggu enn fleiri hlutir, Ó. H. 125; mart býr í þokunni (a proverb), many things bide in the mist; en þat b. mest undir ferð Áka, at …, FmS. xi. 45; þóttusk eigi vita hvat undir myndi b., Nj. 62: b. yfir e-u, to brood over something, conceal; (ormrinn) bjó yfir eitri, i. e. the snake was venomous, Fms. v.. 351: the saying, lítill búkr býr yfir miklu viti, little bulk hides mickle wit, Al.; b. yfir flærð ok vélum, to brood over falsehood and deceit, id.; b. yfir brögðum, FaS. i. 290: b. undir, við e-t, to live under or with a thing, to bide, put up with; eiga undir slíkum ofsa at b., to have to put up with such insolence, FmS. xi. 248; at hart mun þykkja undir at b., Nj. 90, 101; ok mun eigi við þat mega b., i. e. it will be too hard to bide, 164; því at bændr máttu eigi við hitt b., FmS. xi. 224.
búa
III. in a half active sense; b. at e-u, or b. e-u (with dat.), to treat; þeir höfðu spurt hvern veg Þórólfr hafði búit at herbergjum þeirra, how Th. had used their premises, Eg. 85; þeir bjoggu búi sem þeim líkaði (where with dat.), i. e. they treated it recklessly, BS. i. 544; Haraldr jarl fór til bús Sveins, ok bjó þá heldr úspakliga kornum hans, Orkn. 424 (in all passages in bad sense): búa vel saman, to live well together, be friendly, FmS. xi. 312; hence sam-búð, living together; b. við e-n, to treat one so and so; sárt býr þú við mik, Þóra, thou treatest me sorely, vii. 203.
búa
B. ACTIVE, to make ready: the sense and form here reminds one of the Gr. ποιειν: [this sense is much used in Old Engl., esp. the part. bone, boon, or boun, ready, (‘boun to go,’ Chaucer, etc.); in later Engl. ‘boun’ was corrupted into ‘bound,’ in such naut. phrases as bound for a port, etc.: from this part, the ballad writers formed a fresh verb, to boun, ‘busk ye, boun ye;’ ‘busk’ is a remnant of the old reflex, búask, see Dasent, Burnt Njal, pref. xvi. note, and cp. below III.]
búa
I. to make ready, ‘boun,’ for a journey; b. ferð, för sína; and as a naut. term, b. skip, to make ready for sea; bjoggu þeir ferð sína, FmS. ix. 453; en er þeir vóru búnir, Nj. 122; ok vóru þá mjök brott búnir, they were ‘boun’ for sea, Fms. v.i. 101; bjó hann skip sitt, Nj. 128; en skip er brotið, svá at eigi er í för búanda á því sumri, i. e. ship unfit to go to sea, Grág. i. 92; b. sik til göngu, to be ‘boun’ for a walk, Ld. 46; b. sik at keyra, to make one ready for …, Nj. 91.
búa
β. as a law term, b. sök, mál, or adding til, b. til sök, mál á hendr e-m, to take out a summons against one, begin a lawsuit; b. mál í dóm, of the preliminaries to a lawsuit, hence málatilbúningr, in numberless cases in the Grágás and SagaS.
búa
γ. generally to prepare, make; b. smyrsl, to make ointments, Rb. 82.
búa
2. = Old Engl. to boun, i. e. to dress, equip; b. sik, to dress; svá búinn, so dressed, FmS. xi. 272; hence búningr, dress (freq.); vel búinn, well-dressed, Nj. 3, Ísl. ii. 434; spari-búinn, in holiday dress; illa búinn, ill-dressed; síðan bjó hon hana sem hon kunni, she dressed her as well as she could, Finnb. 258; b. beð, rekkjur, to make a bed, Eg. 236; b. upp hvílur, id., Nj. 168; b. öndvegi, hús, to make a high seat, dress a house for a feast, 175, (hús-búnaðr, hús-búningr, tapestry); búa borð, to dress the table, (borð búnaðr, table-service); b. stofu, FmS. iv. 75.
búa
β. búa til veizlu, to make ‘boun’ (prepare) for a feast, Eg. 38, Fms. v.i. 307; b. til seyðis, to make the fire ‘boun’ for cooking, Nj. 199; b. til vetrsetu, to make ‘boun’ for a winter abode, FmS. x. 42; til-búa, and fyrir-b., to prepare; eg fer héðan að til-b. yðr stað, John xiv. 3; eignizt það ríki sem yðr var til-búið frá upphafi veraldar, MatTh. xxv. 34.
búa
γ. b. um e-t, in mod. use with the notion of packing up, to make into a bundle, of parcels, letters, etc.; hence um-búningr and um-búðir, a packing, packing-cover; b. um rúm, hvílu, to make a bed; búa um e-n, to make one’s bed; var búið um þá Þórodd í seti, ok lögðusk þeir til svefns, Th.’s bed was made on the benches, and they went to sleep, Ó. H. 153; skaltú nú sjá hvar vit leggumk niðr, ok hversu ek bý um okkr (of the dying Njal), Nj. 701; er mér sagt at hann hafi illa um búit, of a dead body, 51; þeir höfðu (svá) um sik búit (they had covered themselves so) at þá mátti eigi sjá, 261; kváðu nú Guðrúnu eiga at búa um rauða skör Bolla, said that G. would have to comb B.’s (her husband’s) bloody head, Ld. 244; búa svá um at aldri mátti vökna, pack it up so that it cannot get wet, Fms. v.i. 225; Þórólfr lét setja upp skip ok um búa, he had the ship laid up and fenced it round (for the winter), Eg. 199; b. um andvirki, to fence and thatch bay-ricks, Grág. ii. 335: metaph. to manage, preserve a thing, FmS. ix. 52; aumlega búinn, in a piteous state, Hom. 115.
búa
3. to ornament, esp. with metals or artificial work of any kind, of clothes laced with gold; kyrtill hlaðbúinn, Ísl. ii. 434, Nj. 48, Vm. 129: of gloves, B. K. 84: of a belt with stones or artificial work, FmS. xi. 271: of a drinking-horn, D. n. (Fr.); but esp. of a weapon, sword, or the like, enamelled with gold or silver (gull-búinn, silfr-búinn); búin gulli ok silfri, FmS. i. 15; búinn knífr, xi. 271; vápn búit mjök, much ornamented, ii. 255, iv. 77, 130, Eb. 226, 228.
búa
β. part., búinn at e-u, or vel búinn, metaph. endowed with, well endowed; at flestum í þróttum vel búinn, Nj. 61, FmS. x. 295; at auð vel búinn, wealthy, 410; vel búinn at hreysti ok allri atgörvi, Eg. 82; bezt at viti búinn, FmS. xi. 51.
búa
II. particular use of the part. pass, ‘boun,’ ready, willing; margir munu búnir at kaupa, ready, willing to buy, Fms. v.. 218; hann kvaðsk þess fyrir löngu búinn, Ld. 66, FmS. iii. 123; nefna vátta at þeir eru búnir (ready) at leysa kvið þann af hendi, Grág. i. 54; vóru allir til þess búnir, FmS. xi. 360: compar., engir menn sýna sik búnari (more willing) til liðveizlu, Sturl. i. 103: the allit. phrase, vera boðinn og búinn til e-s, vide bjóða VI: denoting fitted, adapted, ek em gamall, ok lítt b. at (little fit to) hefna sona minna, Nj. 200; þótt ek sé verr til b. en hann fyrir vanheilsu sakir, Fms. v.i. 275; eiga við búið (mod. vera við búinn), to keep oneself ready, to be on one’s guard, BS. i. 537.
búa
2. on the point of doing, about to do so and so; hann var búinn til falls, he was just about to tumble, FmS. x. 314; en áðr þeir kómu var búið til hins mesta váða, ix. 444, v. l.
búa
β. neut. búið is used almost adverbially, on the point of, just about to; ok búið við skipbroti, Ísl. ii. 245; búið við váða miklum, FmS. ix. 310; sagði at þá var búit við geig mikinn með þeim feðgum, Eg. 158: this is rare and obsolete in mod. usage; and the Icel. now say, liggja við mér lá við að detta, where an old writer would have said, ek var búinn at detta; the sense would else be ambiguous, as búinn, vera búinn, in mod. usage means to have done; ég er búinn að eta, I have done eating; vera búinn að e-u (a work, business of any kind), to have done with it; also absol., eg er búinn, I have done; thus e. g. vera b. að kaupa, fyrir löngu b., b. at græða, leysa, etc., in mod. sense means to have done, done long ago; only by adding prepp. við, til (vera við búinn, til búinn) the part. resumes its old sense: on the other hand, búinn in the sense of having done hardly ever occurs in old writerS.
búa
γ. búð (búið) is even used adverbially = may be, may happen; with subj. with or without ‘at,’ búð, svá sé til ætlað, may be, it will come so to happen, Nj. 114; búð, dragi til þess sem vera vill, 185; búð, eigi fari fjarri því sem þú gazt til, id., Ed. JohnS. 508, note c; búð, svá þykki sem ek grípa gulli við þá, 9, note 3; búð, eigi hendi hann slík úgipta annat sinn, 42; búð, ek láta annars víti at varnaði verða, 106; búð, vér þurfim enn hlífanna, Sturl. ii. 137 (vellum MSS.; um ríð, Ed., quite without sense), cp. also Eb. 27 new Ed.: in mod. usage it is freq. to say, það er búið, vel búið, albúið, etc., it is likely, most likely that …
búa
δ. svá búit, adverbially, and proncd. as if one word, as matters stand, or even temp. at present, as yet; eigi mun hlýða svá búit, i. e. it will not do ‘so done,’ i. e. something else must be done, Eg. 507; eigi munu þér fá at unnit svá búið, i. e. not as yet, Fms. v.i. 270; stendr þar nú svá búit (i. e. unchanged), um hríð, xi. 81; en berjask eigi svo búit, not fight as yet, Nj. 229; segja Eyjólfi til svá búins, they tell Eyolf the state of things, viz. that nothing had been done, Gísl. 41; þeir skildu við svá búit; þeir lögðu frá við svá búið, implying ‘vain effort,’ Germ. ‘unverrichteter Sache,’ Ísl. ii, Hkr. i. 340: at svá búnu, adverbially, as yet, at present; hann kvaðsk eigi fýsask til Íslands at svá búnu, Nj. 123, FmS. xi. 131; þenna draum segjum vér engum manni at svá búnu, this dream we will not tell to anybody as yet, Nj. 212; en at svá búnu tjár ekki, FaS. i. 364.
búa
III. reflex. to ‘boun’ or ‘busk’ oneself, make oneself ready, equip oneself; gengu menn þá á skip sín, ok bjoggusk sem hvatligast, Fms. v. 15: adding the infinitive of a verb as predicate, bjósk hann at fara norðr til Þrandheims, Eg. 18; or ellipt., where búask thus denotes the act itself, nú býsk hann út til Íslands, i. e. he ‘busked’ him to go …, Nj. 10; bjoggusk þeir fóstbræðr í hernað, they went on a free-booting trip, Landn. 31; seg Agli at þeir búisk þaðan fimmtán, 94: or adding another verb denoting the act, in the same tense, bjósk Haraldr konungr úr Þrándheimi með skipaliði, ok fór suðr á Mæri, he ‘busked’ him … and went south, Eg. 7; the journey added in gen., búask ferðar sinnar, FmS. i. 3; búask menn ferða sinna, Ld. 177.
búa
β. denoting intention, hidden or not put into action; fór sá kurr, at Skúli byggisk á land upp, FmS. ix. 483.
búa
2. to prepare for a thing; búask við boði, veizlu, etc., Nj. 10, Korm. 10; b. (vel, kristilega) við dauða sínum, andláti sínu, (eccl.) to prepare for one’s death, FS. 80, BS. i. 74; búask við vetri, to provide for the winter, get store in, FmS. xi. 415; b. við úfriði, vii. 23.
búa
β. to be on one’s guard, take steps to prevent a thing; nú ríða hér úvinir þínir at þér; skaltu svá við búask, i. e. be sure of that, make up thy mind, Nj. 264; bústu svá við, skal hann kveða, at …, Grág. ii. 244.
búa
γ. such phrases as, búask um = búa um sik, to make one’s own bed, encamp, make oneself comfortable, Nj. 259; tjölduðu búðir ok bjöggusk vel um, 219; var hörð veðrátta, svá at ekki mátti úti um búask, FmS. x. 13. Ld. 348; in the last passage the verb is deponent.
búa
3. metaph., b. við e-u, to expect, freq. in mod. usage; in phrases, það er ekki við að búast, it cannot be expected; búast við e-m, to expect a guest, or the like.
búa
β. to intend, think about; eg býst við að koma, I hope to come; eg bjóst aldrei við því, I never hoped for that, it never entered my mind, and in numberless caseS.
búa
4. passive (very rare and not classical); um kveldit er matr bjósk = er m. var búinn, FmS. ix. 364.

Possible runic inscription in Younger Futhark:ᛒᚢᛅ
Younger Futhark runes were used from 8th to 12th centuries in Scandinavia and their overseas settlements

Abbreviations used:

contr.
contracted.
cp.
compare.
Dan.
Danish.
etc.
et cetera.
f.
feminine.
Germ.
German.
Goth.
Gothic.
Gr.
Greek.
Hel.
Heliand.
Icel.
Iceland, Icelander, Icelanders, Icelandic.
i. e.
id est.
indic.
indicative.
l.
line.
Lat.
Latin.
m.
masculine.
mod.
modern.
n.
neuter.
neut.
neuter.
North. E.
Northern English.
part.
participle.
pers.
person.
pl.
plural.
plur.
plural.
poët.
poetically.
pres.
present.
pret.
preterite.
q. v.
quod vide.
redupl.
reduplicative.
reflex.
retlexive.
Sansk.
Sanskrit.
Scandin.
Scandinavia, Scandinavian.
Scot.
Scottish.
sing.
singular.
subj.
subjunctive.
sup.
supine.
s. v.
sub voce.
Swed.
Swedish.
Ulf.
Ulfilas.
v.
vide.
naut.
nautical.
ch.
chapter.
pr.
proper, properly.
recipr.
reciprocally.
dat.
dative.
esp.
especially.
absol.
absolute, absolutely.
freq.
frequent, frequently.
id.
idem, referring to the passage quoted or to the translation
metaph.
metaphorical, metaphorically.
Engl.
English.
gl.
glossary.
pref.
preface.
Fr.
French in etymologies.
allit.
alliteration, alliterative.
compar.
comparative.
lit.
literally.
v. l.
varia lectio.
e. g.
exempli gratia.
S.
Saga.
proncd.
pronounced.
temp.
temporal.
viz.
namely.
ellipt.
elliptical, elliptically.
gen.
genitive.
eccl.
ecclesiastical.

Works & Authors cited:

Fms.
Fornmanna Sögur. (E. I.)
Hom.
Homiliu-bók. (F. II.)
Skv.
Sigurðar-kviða. (A. II.)
N. T.
New Testament.
K. Á.
Kristinn-réttr Árna biskups. (B. III.)
Stj.
Stjórn. (F. I.)
Sturl.
Sturlunga Saga. (D. I.)
Skálda
Skálda. (H. I.)
Grág.
Grágás. (B. I.)
K. Þ. K.
Kristinn-réttr Þorláks ok Ketils = Kristinna-laga-þáttr. (B. I.)
Nj.
Njála. (D. II.)
Bb.
Búnaðar-bálkr.
Hrafn.
Hrafnkels Saga. (D. II.)
Bs.
Biskupa Sögur. (D. III.)
Eb.
Eyrbyggja Saga. (D. II.)
Eg.
Egils Saga. (D. II.)
Landn.
Landnáma. (D. I.)
Ld.
Laxdæla Saga. (D. II.)
Lv.
Ljósvetninga Saga. (D. II.)
Al.
Alexanders Saga. (G. I.)
Fas.
Fornaldar Sögur. (C. II.)
Jb.
Jóns-bók. (B. III.)
Lex. Poët.
Lexicon Poëticum by Sveinbjörn Egilsson, 1860.
Ó. H.
Ólafs Saga Helga. (E. I.)
Orkn.
Orkneyinga Saga. (E. II.)
Th.
Theophilus. (F. III.)
Rb.
Rímbegla. (H. III.)
Finnb.
Finnboga Saga. (D. V.)
B. K.
Björgynjar Kálfskinn. (J. II.)
D. N.
Diplomatarium Norvagicum. (J. II.)
Fr.
Fritzner’s Dictionary, 1867.
Vm.
Vilkins-máldagi. (J. I.)
Gísl.
Gísla Saga. (D. II.)
Hkr.
Heimskringla. (E. I.)
Fs.
Forn-sögur. (D. II.)
Korm.
Kormaks Saga. (D. II.)
➞ See all works cited in the dictionary
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