Bregða

Old Norse Dictionary - bregða

Meaning of Old Norse word "bregða" in English.

As defined by the Cleasby & Vigfusson Old Norse to English dictionary:

bregða Old Norse word can mean:

bregða
pret. sing. brá, 2nd pers. brátt, later brást; pl. brugðu, sup. brugðit; pres. bregð; pret. subj. brygði: reflex, (sk, z, st), pret. brásk, bráz, or brást, pl. brugðusk, etc.: poët. with the neg. suff. brá-at, brásk-at, Orkn. 78, FmS. vi. 51.
bregða
A. ACT. WITH dat.
bregða
I. [A. S. bregdan, brædan; Old Engl. and Scot. to brade or braid; cp. bragð throughout]:—to move swiftly:
bregða
1. of a weapon, to draw, brandish; b. sverði, to draw the sword, Gísl. 55, Nj. 28, Ld. 222, Korm. 82 sqq., FmS. i. 44, ii. 306, vi. 313, Eg. 306, 505; sverð brugðit, a drawn sword, 746; cp. the alliterative phrase in Old Engl. Ballads, ‘the bright browne (= brugðinn) sword:’ absol., bregð (imperat.), Korm. l. c.: b. knífi, to slash with a knife, Am. 59; b. flötu sverði, to turn it round in the band, FmS. vii. 157; saxi, BS. i. 629: even of a thrust, b. spjóti, Glúm. 344.
bregða
2. of the limbs or parts of the body, to move quickly; b. hendi, fingri, K. Þ. K. 10, FmS. vi. 122; b. augum sundr, to open the eyes, iii. 57, cp. ‘he bradde open his eyen two,’ Engl. Ballads; b. fótum, Nj. 253; b. fæti, in wrestling; b. grönum, to draw up the lips, 199, FmS. v. 220.
bregða
3. of other objects; b. skipi, to turn the ship (rare), FmS. viii. 145, Eb. 324; b. e-m á eintal, einmæli, to take one apart, FmS. vi. 11, Ölk. 35; b. sér sjúkum, to feign sickness, Fagrsk. ch. 51; bregða sér in mod. usage means to make a short visit, go or come for a moment; eg brá mér snöggvast til …, etc.
bregða
4. adding prepp.; b. upp; b. upp hendi, höndum, to hold up the hand, FmS. i. 167; b. upp glófa, 206, Eb. 326: b. e-m á lopt, to lift aloft, Eg. 122, Nj. 108; b. e-u undan, to put a thing out of the way, to hide it, FaS. i. 6; undir, Sturl. ii. 221, Ld. 222, Eb. 230: b. e-u við (b. við skildi), to ward off with …, Vápn. 5; but chiefly metaph. to put forth as an example, to laud, wonder at, etc.; þínum drengskap skal ek við b., Nj. 18; þessum mun ek við b. Áslaugar órunum, FaS. i. 257; nú mun ek því við b. (I will speak loud), at ek hefi eigi fyr náð við þik at tala, Lv. 53: b. e-u á, to give out, pretend; hann brá á því at hann mundi ríða vestr til Miðfjarðar, Sturl. iii. 197, FmS. viii. 59, x. 322. β. to deviate from, disregard; vér höfum brugðit af ráðum þínum, Fær. 50, Nj. 13, 109, Ísl. ii. 198, Grág. i. 359; b. af marki, to alter the mark, 397.
bregða
5. to turn, alter, change; b. lit, litum, to change colour, to turn pale, etc., FmS. ii. 7, Vígl. 24; b. sér við e-t, to alter one’s mien, shew signs of pain, emotion, or the like, Nj. 116; b. e-m í (or b. á sik) e-s líki, to turn one (by spell) into another shape, Bret. 13; at þú brátt þér í merar líki, Ölk. 37; hann brá á sik ýmissa dýra líki, Edda (pref.) 149.
bregða
II. to break up or off, leave off, give up; b. búi, to give up one’s household, Grág. i. 153, Eg. 116, 704; b. tjöldum, to break up, strike the tents, FmS. iv. 302; b. samvist, to part, leave off living together, ii. 295; b. ráðahag, to break off an engagement, esp. wedding, 11; b. boði, to countermand a feast, 194; b. kaupi, to break off a bargain, Nj. 51, Rd. 251; b. sýslu, to leave off working, FmS. vi. 349; b. svefni, blundi, to awake, Sdm. 2; smátt bregðr slíkt svefni mínum, Lv. 53; b. tali, to break off talking, Vápn. 22; b. orustu, to break off the battle, Bret.: esp. freq. in poetry, b. hungri, föstu, sulti, to break or quell the hunger (of the wolf); b. gleði; b. lífi, fjörvi, to put to death, etc., Lex. poët.
bregða
2. to break faith, promise, or the like; b. máli, Grág. i. 148; trúnaði, Nj. 141; brugðið var öllu sáttmáli, Hkr. ii. 121; b. heiti, Alvm. 3: absol., ef bóandi bregðr við griðmann (breaks a bargain), Grág. i. 153.
bregða
3. reflex., bregðask e-m (or absol.), to deceive, fail, in faith or friendship; Gunnarr kvaðsk aldri skyldu b. Njáli né sonum hans, Nj. 57; bregðsk þú oss nú eigi, do not deceive us, FmS. vi. 17; vant er þó at vita hverir mér eru trúir ef feðrnir b., ii. 11; en þeim brásk framhlaupit, i. e. they failed in the onslaught, vii. 298; þat mun eigi bregðask, that cannot fail, FaS. ii. 526, Rb. 50; fáir munu þeir, at einörð sinni haldi, er slíkir brugðusk við oss, FmS. v. 36, Grett. 26 new Ed.
bregða
III. [A. S. brædan, to braid, braider], to ‘braid,’ knot, bind, the band, string being in dat.; hann bregðr í fiskinn öðrum enda, he braided the one end in the fish, Finnb. 220; hón brá hárinu undir belli sér, she braided her hair under her belt; (hann) brá (untied) brókabelti sínu, FaS. i. 47; er þeir höfðu brugðið kaðli um, wound a cable round it, FmS. x. 53; hefir strengrinn brugðizk líttat af fótum honum, the rope had loosened off his feet, xi. 152: but also simply and with acc., b. bragð, to braid a braid, knit a knot, Eg. (in a verse); b. ráð, to weave a plot, (cp. Gr. ράπτειν, Lat. suere), Edda (in a verse); in the proper sense flétta and ríða, q. v., are more usual.
bregða
2. in wrestling; b. e-m, the antagonist in dat., the trick in acc., b. e-m bragð (hæl-krók, sveiflu, etc.)
bregða
3. recipr., of mutual strife; bregðask brögðum, to play one another tricks; b. brigzlum, to scold one another, Grág. ii. 146; b. frumhlaupum, of mutual aggression, 13, 48; bregðask um e-t, to contest a thing, 66, cp. i. 34.
bregða
4. part., brugðinn við e-t, acquainted with a thing; munuð þit brátt brugðnir við meira, i. e. you will soon have greater matters to deal with, FS. 84; hann er við hvárttveggja b., he is well versed in both, Gísl. 51.
bregða
IV. metaph. to upbraid, blame, with dat. of the person and thing; fár bregðr hinu betra, ef hann veit hit verra (a proverb), Nj. 227; Þórðr blígr brá honum því (Thord threw it in his face), á Þórsnesþingi, at …, Landn. 101; Kálfr brá mér því í dag, FmS. vi. 105; b. e-m brizglum, Nj. 227.
bregða
B. NEUT. OR ABSOl. without a case, of swift, sudden motion.
bregða
I. b. á e-t, as, b. á leik, gaman, etc., to start or begin sporting, playing; Kimbi brá á gaman, K. took it playfully, i. e. laughed at it, Landn. 101; b. á gamanmál, FmS. xi. 151; þeir brugðu á glímu ok á glens, they started wrestling and playing, Ld. 220; bregðr hann (viz. the horse) á leik, the horse broke into play, ran away, FmS. xi. 280; Glúmr svaraði vel en brá þó á sitt ráð, Glum gave a gentle answer, but went on in his own way, Nj. 26, FaS. i. 250: the phrase, hönd bregðr á venju, the hand is ready for its old work, Edda (Al. (C. I.)">Ht.) verse 26, cp. Nj. ch. 78 (in a verse).
bregða
2. b. við, to start off, set about a thing without delay, at a moment’s notice, may in Engl. often be rendered by at once or the like; brá hann við skjótt ok fór, he started off at once and went, FmS. i. 158; þeir brugðu við skjótt, ok varð þeim mjök við felmt, i. e. they took to their heels in a great fright, Nj. 105; þeir brugðu við skjótt, ok fara þaðan, 107; bregðr hon við ok hleypr, Grett. 25 new Ed., Bjarn. 60; hrossit bregðr nú við hart, id.; en er Ólafr spurði, at Þorsteinn hafði skjótt við brugðit, ok hafði mikit fjölmenni, Ld. 228.
bregða
β. b. til e-s, þá brá Ingimundr til utanferðar, Ingimund started to go abroad, Sturl. i. 117; b. til Grænlands ferðar, Fb. i. 430.
bregða
II. reflex, to make a sudden motion with the body; Rútr brásk skjótt við undan högginu, Nj. 28, 129; b. við fast, to turn sharply, 58, 97; bregðsk (= bregðr) jarl nú við skjótt ok ferr, the earl started at once, FmS. xi. 11; hann brásk aldregi við (he remained motionless) er þeir píndu hann, heldr en þeir lysti á stokk eðr stein, vii. 227.
bregða
2. metaph. and of a circumlocutory character; eigi þætti mér ráðið, hvárt ek munda svá skjótt á boð brugðisk hafa, ef …, I am not sure whether I should have been so hasty in bidding you, if …, Ísl. ii. 156; bregðask á beina við e-n, to shew hospitality towards, FmS. viii. 59, cp. bregða sér above.
bregða
β. b. yfir, to exceed; heyra þeir svá mikinn gný at yfir brásk, they heard an awful crash, Mag. 6; þá brásk þat þó yfir jafnan (it surpassed) er konungr talaði, FmS. x. 322, yet these last two instances may be better read ‘barst,’ vide bera C. IV; bregðask úkunnr, reiðr … við e-t, to be startled at the novelty of a thing, v. 258; b. reiðr við, to get excited, angry at a thing, etc.
bregða
C. IMpers.
bregða
I. the phrase, e-m bregðr við e-t, of strong emotions, fear, anger, or the like; brá þeim mjök við, er þau sá hann inn ganga, it startled them much, when they saw him come in, Nj. 68; Flosa brá svá við, at hann var í andliti stundum sem blóð, 177; en þó brá fóstru Melkorku mest við þessi tíðindi, i. e. this news most affected Melkorka’s nurse, Ld. 82; aldri hefi ek mannsblóð séð, ok veit ek eigi hve mér bregðr við, I wot not how it will touch me, Nj. 59; brá honum svá við, at hann gerði fölvan í andliti … ok þann veg brá honum opt síðan (he was oft since then taken in such fits), þá er vígahugr var á honum, Glúm. 342; en við höggit brá Glæsi svá at …, Eb. 324; Þorkell spurði ef honum hefði brugðit nokkut við þessa sýslu.—Ekki sjám vér þér brugðit hafa við þetta, en þó sýndist mér þér áðr brugðit, FmS. xi. 148.
bregða
β. bregða í brún, to be amazed, shocked, FmS. i. 214; þá brá Guðrúnu mjök í brún um atburð þenna allan saman, Ld. 326, Nj. 14; þat hlægir mik at þeim mun í brún b., 239; nú bregðr mönnum í brún mjök (people were very much startled), því at margir höfðu áðr enga frétt af haft, Band. 7.
bregða
II. with prepp. við, til, í, af; of appearances, kynligu, undarliga bregðr við, it has a weird look, looks uncanny, of visions, dreams, or the like; en þó bregðr nú kynligu við, undan þykir mér nú gaflaðit hvárt-tveggja undan húsinu, Ísl. ii. 352, Nj. 62, 197, Gísl. 83; nú bregðr undrum við, id., FmS. i. 292.
bregða
III. e-m bregðr til e-s, one person turns out like another, cp. the Danish ‘at slægte en paa;’ þat er mælt at fjórðungi bregði til fóstrs, the fostering makes the fourth part of the man, Nj. 64; en því bregðr mér til foreldris míns, in that I am like my father, Hkr. iii. 223; er þat líkast, at þér bregði meir í þræla ættina en Þveræinga, it is too likely, that thou wilt show thyself rather to be kith and kin to the thrall’s house than to that of Thweræingar, Fb. i. 434; b. til bernsku, to be childish, Al. 3.
bregða
β. bregðr af vexti hans frá öðrum selum, his shape differs from that of any other seals, SkS. 41 new Ed. (afbrigði).
bregða
IV. to cease; e-u bregðr, it ceases; svá hart … at nyt (dat.) bregði, (to drive the ewes) so fast that they fail (to give milk), Grág. ii. 231; þessu tali bregðr aldri (= þetta tal bregzk aldri), this calculation can never fail, Rb. 536; veðráttu (dat.) brá eigi, there was no change in the weather, Grett. 91; skini sólar brá, the sun grew dim, Geisü 19; fjörvi feigra brá, the life of the ‘feys’ came to an end (poët.), FmS. vi. 316 (in a verse); brá föstu, hungri, úlfs, ara, the hunger of wolf and eagle was abated, is a freq. phrase with the poetS.
bregða
V. of a sudden appearance; kláða (dat.) brá á hvarmana, the eye-lids itched, FmS. v. 96: of light passing swiftly by, þá brá ljóma af Logafjöllum, Hkv. 1. 15; ljósi bregðr fyrir, a light passes before the eye; mey brá mér fyrir hvarma steina, a maid passed before my eyes, Snót 117; þar við ugg (dat.) at þrjótum brá, i. e. the rogues were taken by fear, 170.

Possible runic inscription in Younger Futhark:ᛒᚱᛁᚴᚦᛅ
Younger Futhark runes were used from 8th to 12th centuries in Scandinavia and their overseas settlements

Abbreviations used:

etc.
et cetera.
f.
feminine.
l.
line.
n.
neuter.
neg.
negative.
pers.
person.
pl.
plural.
poët.
poetically.
pres.
present.
pret.
preterite.
sing.
singular.
subj.
subjunctive.
uff.
suffix.
sup.
supine.
A. S.
Anglo-Saxon.
cp.
compare.
Engl.
English.
gl.
glossary.
S.
Saga.
Scot.
Scottish.
absol.
absolute, absolutely.
imperat.
imperative.
l. c.
loco citato.
m.
masculine.
s. v.
sub voce.
v.
vide.
ch.
chapter.
mod.
modern.
metaph.
metaphorical, metaphorically.
pref.
preface.
esp.
especially.
freq.
frequent, frequently.
i. e.
id est.
reflex.
retlexive.
acc.
accusative.
dat.
dative.
Gr.
Greek.
Lat.
Latin.
q. v.
quod vide.
pr.
proper, properly.
recipr.
reciprocally.
part.
participle.
L.
Linnæus.
viz.
namely.
id.
idem, referring to the passage quoted or to the translation

Works & Authors cited:

Fms.
Fornmanna Sögur. (E. I.)
Orkn.
Orkneyinga Saga. (E. II.)
Am.
Atla-mál. (A. II.)
Bs.
Biskupa Sögur. (D. III.)
Eg.
Egils Saga. (D. II.)
Gísl.
Gísla Saga. (D. II.)
Glúm.
Víga-Glúms Saga. (D. II.)
Korm.
Kormaks Saga. (D. II.)
Ld.
Laxdæla Saga. (D. II.)
Nj.
Njála. (D. II.)
K. Þ. K.
Kristinn-réttr Þorláks ok Ketils = Kristinna-laga-þáttr. (B. I.)
Eb.
Eyrbyggja Saga. (D. II.)
Fagrsk.
Fagrskinna. (K. I.)
Ölk.
Ölkofra-þáttr. (D. II.)
Fas.
Fornaldar Sögur. (C. II.)
Fær.
Færeyinga Saga. (E. II.)
Grág.
Grágás. (B. I.)
Lv.
Ljósvetninga Saga. (D. II.)
Sturl.
Sturlunga Saga. (D. I.)
Vápn.
Vápnfirðinga Saga. (D. II.)
Bret.
Breta Sögur. (G. I.)
Edda
Edda. (C. I.)
Vígl.
Víglundar Saga. (D. V.)
Lex. Poët.
Lexicon Poëticum by Sveinbjörn Egilsson, 1860.
Rd.
Reykdæla Saga. (D. II.)
Sdm.
Sigrdrífu-mál. (A. II.)
Hkr.
Heimskringla. (E. I.)
Grett.
Grettis Saga. (D. II.)
Rb.
Rímbegla. (H. III.)
Finnb.
Finnboga Saga. (D. V.)
Fs.
Forn-sögur. (D. II.)
Landn.
Landnáma. (D. I.)
Ht.
Hátta-tal. (C. I.)
Bjarn.
Bjarnar Saga. (D. II.)
Fb.
Flateyjar-bók (E. I.)
Mag.
Magus Saga. (G. II.)
Band.
Banda-manna Saga. (D. II.)
Al.
Alexanders Saga. (G. I.)
Sks.
Konungs Skugg-sjá. (H. II.)
Hkv.
Helga-kviða Hundingsbana. (A. II.)
Snót
Snót, poems.
➞ See all works cited in the dictionary
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