Bjarga

Old Norse Dictionary - bjarga

Meaning of Old Norse word "bjarga" in English.

As defined by the Cleasby & Vigfusson Old Norse to English dictionary:

bjarga Old Norse word can mean:

bjarga
barg, burgu, borgit; pres. bergr, pl. björgum; imperat. bjarg; pret. subj. byrga: in mod. use after the Reformation this verb is constantly used weak, bjarga, að, pres. bjargar, pret. bjargat; the only remnant of the old is the sup. borgit, etc. In Norway this weak form occurs very early, e. g. bjargar, servat, Hom. 17; in Icel. the weak seldom occurs before the 15th century; bjargaðist, FS. 143, and bjargat (sup.) = borgit, Lv. 11, are probably due to these passages being left in paper MSS.; the weak bjargaði, however, occurs in a vellum MS. of the 15th century, Þorf. Karl. 388; 1st pers. pres. bjarga, FmS. xi. 150 (MS. 13th century) seems to be a Norse idiom, [Goth. bairgan; Hel. bergan; A. S. beargan; cp. birgr]:—to save, help; with dat., bergr hverjum sem eigi er feigr (a proverb), Sturl. iii. 220; sá er öldum bergr, who saves mankind, viz. against the giants, i. e. Thor, Hým. 22; nema Þorgeirr byrgi honum, Rd. 295: absol., Guð barg (by God’s grace) er konungrinn varð eigi sárr, FmS. v. 268: in theol. sense, vildu þeir eigi snúast til mín at ek byrga þeim, 656 C. 23, Hom. l. c.: impers., e-m er borgit, is saved, comes safe and sound out of danger, Fær. 178, Hkv. Hjörv. 29.
bjarga
2. a law term; b. sök, máli, to find a point of defence; hann bergr þeim kosti sökinni, at …, Grág. i. 40; bergsk hann við bjargkviðinn, he is free by virtue of the verdict, 36; borgit mun nú verða at lögum, i. e. there will be some means of putting it right, Lv. 11, Nj. 36.
bjarga
3. special phrases; b. skipshöfn, to pick up the shipwrecked, Þorf. Karl. l. c., FmS. xi. 412; skipi, to haul a ship out of the reach of tides and waves, Grág. ii. 385; hval, to drag a dead whale ashore,l. 461: to help labouring women (v. bjargrúnar), Sdm. 9; b. nám (v. nábjargir), to render the last service to a dead body, 33; b. kúm, to attend cows casting calf, Bjarn. 32; b. búfé, to milk ewes, n. G. l. i. 10; b. brókum, cacare, FmS. xi. 150.
bjarga
II. recipr. of mutual help; bjargast at allir saman, to be saved all in common, Hkr. ii. 347.
bjarga
III. reflex., bjargask vel, to behave well, keep the heart up, esp. in cold or hunger; Oddr bargst vel á fjallinu (in snow storm), Sturl. iii. 215, Orkn. 324, of one shipwrecked; b. úti, of cattle, to graze, n. G. l. i. 25; b. sjálfr, to gain one’s bread, Grág. i. 294; b. á sínar hendr (spýtur), to support oneself with one’s own hands, FmS. ii. 159: of food or drink, cp. bergja; Snorri goði fann, at nafni hans bargst lítt við ostinn, that he got on slowly eating the cheese, Eb. 244; hann spurði, hví hann byrgist svá lítt (v. l. mataðist svá seint), … why he ate so slowly, id.; verði þér nú at bjargast við slíkt sem til er, you must put up with what you can get, Germ. für lieb nehmen, Eg. 204; hon bað fyrir þær matar ok burgust þær við þat, Clem. 26; hon bjargaðist (= bargst) lítt við þá fæðu er til var, she could hardly eat the food they had (v. l. hjúkaðist), FS. 174. Part. borginn, used as adj. and even in compar.; impers., erat héra (héri = hegri = duck) at borgnara þótt hæna beri skjöld, the drake is none the better off though a hen shield him, metaph. of a craven, FS. 174, FmS. vii. 116: [Early Engl. to borrow = to save, ‘who borrowed Susanna out of wo,’ Sir Guy of Warwick.]

Possible runic inscription in Younger Futhark:ᛒᛁᛅᚱᚴᛅ
Younger Futhark runes were used from 8th to 12th centuries in Scandinavia and their overseas settlements

Abbreviations used:

absol.
absolute, absolutely.
A. S.
Anglo-Saxon.
cp.
compare.
dat.
dative.
e. g.
exempli gratia.
etc.
et cetera.
f.
feminine.
Goth.
Gothic.
Hel.
Heliand.
Icel.
Iceland, Icelander, Icelanders, Icelandic.
i. e.
id est.
imperat.
imperative.
impers.
impersonal.
l.
line.
l. c.
loco citato.
m.
masculine.
mod.
modern.
pers.
person.
pl.
plural.
pres.
present.
pret.
preterite.
S.
Saga.
subj.
subjunctive.
sup.
supine.
s. v.
sub voce.
theol.
theological, theologically.
v.
vide.
viz.
namely.
L.
Linnæus.
n.
neuter.
pr.
proper, properly.
recipr.
reciprocally.
adj.
adjective.
compar.
comparative.
Engl.
English.
esp.
especially.
Germ.
German.
gl.
glossary.
id.
idem, referring to the passage quoted or to the translation
metaph.
metaphorical, metaphorically.
reflex.
retlexive.
v. l.
varia lectio.

Works & Authors cited:

Fms.
Fornmanna Sögur. (E. I.)
Fs.
Forn-sögur. (D. II.)
Fær.
Færeyinga Saga. (E. II.)
Hkv.
Helga-kviða Hundingsbana. (A. II.)
Hkv. Hjörv.
Helga-kviða Hjörvarðssonar. (A. II.)
Hom.
Homiliu-bók. (F. II.)
Hým.
Hýmis-kviða. (A. I.)
Karl.
Karla-magnús Saga. (G. I.)
Lv.
Ljósvetninga Saga. (D. II.)
Rd.
Reykdæla Saga. (D. II.)
Sturl.
Sturlunga Saga. (D. I.)
Þorf. Karl.
Þorfinns Saga Karlsefnis. (D. II.)
Grág.
Grágás. (B. I.)
Nj.
Njála. (D. II.)
Bjarn.
Bjarnar Saga. (D. II.)
Gþl.
Gulaþings-lög. (B. II.)
N. G. L.
Norges Gamle Love. (B. II.)
Sdm.
Sigrdrífu-mál. (A. II.)
Hkr.
Heimskringla. (E. I.)
Clem.
Clements Saga. (F. III.)
Eb.
Eyrbyggja Saga. (D. II.)
Eg.
Egils Saga. (D. II.)
Orkn.
Orkneyinga Saga. (E. II.)
➞ See all works cited in the dictionary
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