Baugr

Old Norse Dictionary - baugr

Meaning of Old Norse word "baugr" in English.

As defined by the Cleasby & Vigfusson Old Norse to English dictionary:

baugr Old Norse word can mean:

baugr
m. [the root bjúg—baug—bog; A. S. beág; O. H. G. pouc = armilla; lost in N. H. G. and in Engl.]
baugr
I. a ring, armlet, esp. in olden times to be worn on the wrist plain, without stones:
baugr
α. the sacred temple ring (stallahringr) on the altar in heathen temples; all oaths were’ to be made by laying the hand upon the temple ring; at sacrificial banquets it was to be dipped in the blood, and was to be worn by the priest at all meetingS. The ring was either of gold or silver, open (mótlaus), its weight varying between two, three, and twenty ounces (the last is the reading of Eb. new Ed. p. 6, v. 1., the classical passages in the Sagas are—Eb. l. c. (and cp. 44), Glúm. 388, Landn. (Hb.) 258, Þórð. S. 94 (Ed. 1860); cp. also the note at the end of the new Ed. of Eb., referring to an interesting essay of the Norse Prof. Holmboe upon the matter, Christiania, A. D. 1864.
baugr
β. baugr is at present in Icel. used of a spiral ring without a stone (e. g. a wedding ring); the third finger is called baugfingr, transl. from Lat. digitus annuli, for the wearing of wedding rings is not in use in Icel. (unless as a Dan. imitation). Icel. also say einbaugr, tvibaugr, a single or double spiral ring.
baugr
II. metaph. in olden times, before minted gold or silver came into use, the metals were rolled up in spiral-formed rings, and pieces cut off and weighed were used as a medium of payment; hence, in old times, baugr simply means money, used in the poets in numberless compounds; hringum hreytti, hjó sundr baug, Rm. 35; cp. baugbroti, baugskyndir, baugskati, baughati, one who breaks, throws, hates gold, epithets of princes, etc., v. Lex. Poët. A. S. poetry abounds in epithets such as, beaggeafa, dator auri; the Heliand speaks of ‘vunden gold.’ In the law the payment of weregild is particularly called baugr, v. the compounds: baugatal is the Icel. section of law treating of the weregild, Grág. ii. 171–188; höfuôbaugr, lögbaugr (a legal baug, lawful payment). In the Norse law vide esp. n. G. l. i. 74 sqq., 184 sqq.
baugr
2. the painted circle on the round shield (clypeus); á fornum skjöldum var títt at skrifa rönd þá er b. var kallaðr, ok er við þann baug skildir kendir, Edda 87, Eg. 699; often embellished with scenes from the mythical age. Some poems arc preserved or on record, describing such shields, two Berudrápur by Egil (bera, a shield), Haustlöng by Thjodolf, Ragnarsdrápa by Bragi Gamli (of the 9th and 10th centuries). Some of these poems were among the chief sources used by Snorri in composing the Edda. The shield is metaph. called baugr, Edda (gl.)
baugr
3. a fish-hook; man eigi þú draga Leviathan á öngli eðr bora kiðr hans með baugi (very rare, if not an απ. λεγ.), Post. 686 C. 2.
baugr
4. the phrase, eiga (kost) á baugi, to have (a single) chance left; þótti þat vera et mesta hætturáð at berjast, en sá mun á baugi, ef eigi er sæzt, there will be no other chance unless we come to terms, Sturl. iii. 244; þú munt eiga slíkan á baugi brátt, thou wilt soon have the very same chance (viz. death), the turn will come to thee, Nj. 58; nú mun ek eiga þann á baugi, at …, there will be no other chance for me, than …, Orkn. 46; cp. einbeygðr kostr, dira necessitas, 58; kvaðst þá heldr vilja liggja hjá henni, ef sá væri á baugi, if there were no other chance, FaS. ii. 150. The explanation of this metaphor is doubtful, cp. Vkv. verses 5 and 7 (?), or is the metaphor taken from the weregild?
baugr
5. baugr also occurs in mod. usage in many compds, astron. and mathem., spor-baugr, the ecliptic; hádegisbaugr, a meridian.
baugr
COMPDS: baugabrot, baugamaðr, baugatal, baugshelgi.

Possible runic inscription in Younger Futhark:ᛒᛅᚢᚴᚱ
Younger Futhark runes were used from 8th to 12th centuries in Scandinavia and their overseas settlements

Abbreviations used:

A. S.
Anglo-Saxon.
Engl.
English.
gl.
glossary.
l.
line.
m.
masculine.
N. H. G.
New High German.
O. H. G.
Old High German.
S.
Saga.
esp.
especially.
A. D.
Anno Domini.
cp.
compare.
f.
feminine.
l. c.
loco citato.
n.
neuter.
v.
vide.
Dan.
Danish.
e. g.
exempli gratia.
Icel.
Iceland, Icelander, Icelanders, Icelandic.
Lat.
Latin.
transl.
translation.
etc.
et cetera.
L.
Linnæus.
metaph.
metaphorical, metaphorically.
απ. λεγ.
απαξ. λεγόμενον.
viz.
namely.
astron.
astronomy, astronomically.
mod.
modern.

Works & Authors cited:

Eb.
Eyrbyggja Saga. (D. II.)
Glúm.
Víga-Glúms Saga. (D. II.)
Hb.
Hauks-bók. (H. IV.)
Landn.
Landnáma. (D. I.)
Þórð.
Þórðar Saga hreðu. (D. V.)
Grág.
Grágás. (B. I.)
Lex. Poët.
Lexicon Poëticum by Sveinbjörn Egilsson, 1860.
N. G. L.
Norges Gamle Love. (B. II.)
Rm.
Rígsmál. (A. II.)
Edda
Edda. (C. I.)
Eg.
Egils Saga. (D. II.)
Post.
Postula Sögur. (F. III.)
Fas.
Fornaldar Sögur. (C. II.)
Nj.
Njála. (D. II.)
Orkn.
Orkneyinga Saga. (E. II.)
Sturl.
Sturlunga Saga. (D. I.)
Vkv.
Völundar-kviða. (A. II.)
➞ See all works cited in the dictionary
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