As defined by the Cleasby & Vigfusson Old Norse to English dictionary:
bæsingr Old Norse word can mean:
- m., prop. one born in a báss (q. v.); hence, as a law term, the child of an outlawed mother; þat barn er ok eigi arfgengt (that child is also not entitled to inheritance), er sú kona getr er sek er orðin skógarmaðr, þó-at hon geti við bónda sínum úsekjum, ok heitir sá maðr bæsingr, Grág. i. 178. Is not the name Bastard, which first occurs as. the surname of the Conqueror, simply a Norman corruption of this Scandin. law term? The son of an outlawed father was called vargdropi, q. v.
- 2. poët. the name of a sword, Edda (Gl.) This word is, we believe, derived from báss, a ‘boose’ stall, Goth. bansts; its original sense would then be, one born in a stall or crib; hence as a law term, a bastard; hornungr from horn (a corner) is an analogous term, cp. Germ. winkel-kind, for in ancient Teut. laws and language the bastard or outcast was considered as being born in an out-of-the-way place. Both words, bastarðr and bæsingr (q. v.), are, we believe, one in sense and origin, bastarðr being the older form, bæsingr the later; from Goth. banst-s was formed bastarðr, qs. banstarðr; in Norway and Icel. bansts dropped the t and absorbed the n into the preceding vowel, and became bás-s; from this ‘báss’ was formed bæsingr, with ingr as inflexive syllable, and the vowel changed; whereas bastarðr, we suppose, dates from an early time before vowel-change had taken place. Both words are law terms, the former Normannic (or Frankish), the latter Norse: both occur as the name of a sword,—bæsingr in the mythical tale, Fb. ii, of St. Olave’s sword, ere it was taken out of the cairn; bastarðr in Fms. vii. (12th century), perhaps a sword of Norman workmanship. Literally bastarðr means ‘boose-hardy,’ the hardy one of the stall, the bastard being the boy who got all kinds of rough usage, and so became hardy; we catch an echo of this in the words of the old lay—kóðu ‘harðan’ mjök ‘hornung’ vera, Hðm. 12.
Possible runic inscription in Younger Futhark:ᛒᛅᛋᛁᚾᚴᚱ
Younger Futhark runes were used from 8th to 12th centuries in Scandinavia and their overseas settlements
- proper, properly.
- q. v.
- quod vide.
- Scandinavia, Scandinavian.
- Iceland, Icelander, Icelanders, Icelandic.
Works & Authors cited:
- Grágás. (B. I.)
- Edda. (C. I.)
- Flateyjar-bók (E. I.)
- Fornmanna Sögur. (E. I.)
- Hamðis-mál. (A. II.)