Auga

Old Norse Dictionary - auga

Meaning of Old Norse word "auga" in English.

As defined by the Cleasby & Vigfusson Old Norse to English dictionary:

auga Old Norse word can mean:

auga
n., gen. pl. augna, [Lat. oculus, a dimin. of an obsolete ocus; Gr. οφθαλμός (Boeot. οκταλμός); Sanskr. aksha: the word is common to Sanskrit with the Slavonic, Greek, Roman, and Teutonic idioms: Goth. augo; Germ, auge; A. S. eâge; Engl. eye; Scot. ee; Swed. öga; Dan. öje, etc. Grimm S. v. suggests a relationship to Lat. acies, acutus, etc. The letter n appears in the plur. of the mod. northern languages; the Swedes say ‘ögon,’ oculi, the Danes ‘öjne;’ with the article ‘ögonen’ and ‘öjnene;’ Old Engl. ‘eyne;’ Scot. ‘een’]
auga
I. an eye. It is used in Icel. in a great many proverbs, e. g. betr sjá augu en auga, ‘two eyes see better than one,’ i. e. it is good to yield to advice: referring to love, unir auga meðan á sér, the eye is pleased whilst it can behold (viz. the object of its affection), FaS. i. 125, cp. VölS.m. 4. 189; eigi leyna augu, ef ann kona manni, the eyes cannot bide it, if a woman love a man, i. e. they tell their own tale, Ísl. ii. 251. This pretty proverb is an απ. λεγ. l. c. and is now out of use; it is no doubt taken from a poem in a dróttkvætt metre, (old proverbs have alliteration, but neither rhymes nor assonance, rhyming proverbs are of a comparatively late date): medic., eigi er sá heill er í augun verkir, Fbr. 75; sá drepr opt fæti (slips) er augnanna missir, BS. i. 742; hætt er einu auganu nema vel fari, he who has only one eye to lose will take care of it (comm.); húsbóndans auga sér bezt, the master’s eye sees best; glögt er gests augat, a guest’s eye is sharp; mörg eru dags augu, the day has many eyes, i. e. what is to be hidden must not be done in broad daylight, Hm. 81; náið er nef augum, the nose is near akin to the eyes (tua res agitur paries quum proximus ardet), Nj. 21; opt verðr slíkt á sæ, kvað selr, var skotinn í auga, this often happens at sea, quoth the seal, when he was shot in the eye, of one who is in a scrape, FmS. viii. 402. In many phrases, at unna (to love) e-m sem augum í höfði sér, as one’s own eye-balls, Nj. 217; þótti mér slökt it sætasta ljós augna minna, by his death the sweetest light of my eyes was quenched, 187: hvert grætr þú nú Skarphéðinn? eigi er þat segir Skarphéðinn, en hitt er satt at súrnar í augum, the eyes smart from smoke, 200: renna, líta augum, to seek with the eyes, to look upon: it is used in various connections, renna, líta ástaraugum, vánaraugum, vinaraugum, trúaraugum, öfundaraugum, girndarauga, with eyes of love, hope, friendship, faith, envy, desire: mæna a. denotes an upward or praying look; stara, fixed; horfa, attentive; lygna, blundskaka, stupid or slow; blína, glápa, góna, vacant or silly; skima, wandering; hvessa augu, a threatening look; leiða e-n a., to measure one with the eyes; gjóta, or skjóta hornauga, or skjóta a. í skjálg, to throw a side glance of dislike or ill-will; gjóta augum is always in a bad sense; renna, líta mostly in a good sense: gefa e-u auga, oculum adjicere alicui; hafa auga á e-u, to keep an eye on it; segja e-m e-t í augu upp, to one’s face, Orkn. 454; at augum, adverb. with open eyes, Hervar. S. (in a verse), etc. As regards various movements of the eyes; ljúka upp augum, to open the eyes; láta aptr augun, to shut the eyes; draga auga í pung, to draw the eye into a purse, i. e. shut one eye; depla augum, to blink; at drepa titlinga (Germ. äugeln, blinzen), to wink, to kill tits with the suppressed glances of the eye; glóðarauga, a suffusion on the eye, hyposphagma; kýrauga. proptosis; vagl á auga, a beam in the eye; skjálgr, Lat. limus; ský, albugo; tekinn til augnanna, with sunken eyes, etc., Fél. ix. 192; a. bresta, in death: hafa stýrur í augum, to have prickles in the eyes, when the eyes ache for want of sleep: vatna músum, ‘to water mice,’ used esp. of children weeping silently and trying to hide their tearS. As to the look or expression of the eyes there are sundry metaph. phrases, e. g. hafa fékróka í augum, to have wrinkles at the corners of the eyes, of a shrewd money getting fellow, FmS. ii. 84, cp. Orkn. 330, 188, where krókauga is a cognom.; kvenna-króka, one insinuating with the fair sex; hafa ægishjalm í augum is a metaphor of one with a piercing, commanding eye, an old mythical term for the magical power of the eye, v. Grimm’s D. Mythol. under Ægishjalmr: vera mjótt á milli augnanna, the distance between the eyes being short, is a popular saying, denoting a close, stingy man, hence mjóeygr means close: e-m vex e-t í augu (now augum), to shrink back from, of a thing waxing and growing before one’s eyes so that one dares not face it. As to the shape, colour, etc. of the eye, vide the adj. ‘eygr’ or ‘eygðr’ in its many compdS. Lastly we may mention the belief, that when the water in baptism touches the eyes, the child is thereby in future life prevented from seeing ghosts or goblins, vide the words úfreskr and skygn. No spell can touch the human eye; en er harm sá augu hans (that of Loki in the shape of a bird), þá grunaði hann (the giant) at maðr mundi vera, Edda 60; í bessum birni þykist hón kenna augu Bjarnar konungs sonar, FaS. i. 51, vide Ísl. ÞjóðS.
auga
II. meton. and metaph. auga is used in a great many connections:
auga
α. astron.; þjaza augu, the eyes of the giant Thiazi, is a constellation, probably the Dioscuri, Castor and Pollux; the story is told in the Edda 47, cp. Harbarðsljóð 19; (Snorri attributes it to Odin, the poem to Thor.)
auga
β. botan., auga = Lat. gemma, Hjalt. 38; kattarauga, cat’s eye, is the flower forget-me-not.
auga
γ. the spots that form the numbers on dice, Magn. 530.
auga
δ. the hole in a millstone; kvarnarauga, Edda 79, 221, Hkr. i. 121: the opening into which an axe handle is fastened, Sturl. ii. 91: a pit full of water, FS. 45: nálarauga, a needle’s eye: vindauga, wind’s eye or window (which orig. had no glass in it), A. S. eag-dura (eye-door); also gluggi, q. v.: gleraugu, spectacles.
auga
ε. anatom., the pan of the hip joint, v. augnakarl, FmS. iii. 392: gagnaugu, temples.
auga
ζ. hafsauga, the bottom of the ocean, in the popular phrase, fara út í hafsauga, descendere ad tartara.
auga
η. poët. the sun is called heimsauga, dagsauga, Jónas 119.
auga
COMPDS either with sing. auga or pl. augna; in the latter case mod. usage sometimes drops the connecting vowel a, e. g. augn-dapr, augn-depra, augn-fagr, etc. auga-bragð (augna-), n. the twinkling of an eye, Hm. 77; á einu a., in the twinkling of an eye, Ver. 32, Edda (pref.) 146, SkS. 559, Rb. 568: a glance, look, snart a., FmS. ii. 174; mikit a., v. 335; úfagrligt a., FS. 43; hafa a. af e-u, to cast a look at, Fbr. 49, FmS. xi. 424: in the phrase, at hafa e-n (or verða) at augabragði, metaph. to make sport of, to mock, deride, gaze at, Stj. 627, 567, Hm. 5, 29. auga-brun, f. the eye-brow. auga-staðr, m. an eye-mark; hafa a. á e-u, to mark with the eye. auga-steinn (augna-), m. the eye-ball, Hkr. iii. 365, FmS. v. 152. augna-bending, f. a warning glance, Pr. 452. augna-blik, n. mod. = augnabragð, S. augna-bólga, u, f. ophthalmia. augna-brá, f. the eye-lid, D. n. i. 216. augna-fagr and aug-fagr, adj. fair-eyed, FaS. ii. 365, FmS. v. 200. augna-fró, f. a plant, eye-bright, euphrasia, also augna-gras, Hjalt. 231. augna-fræ, n. lychnis alpina. augna-gaman, n. a sport, delight for the eyes to gaze at, Ld. 202, Bær. 17, Fsm. 5 (love, sweetheart). augna-gróm, n. (medic.) a spot in the eye; metaph., ekki a., no mere speck, of whatever can easily be seen. augna-hár, n. an eye-lash. augna-hvannr, m. the eye-lid. augna-hvita, u, f. albugo. augna-karl, n. the pan of the hip joint; slíta or slitna or augnaköllunum, FaS. iii. 392. augna-kast, n. a wild glance, Barl. 167. augna-kláði, a, m. psorophthalmi. augna-krókr, n. the corner of the eye. augna-lag, n. a look, Ld. 154. augna-lok, n. ‘eye-covers,’ eye-lids. augna-mein, n. a disease of the eye. augna-mjörkvi, a, m. dimness of the eye, Pr. 471. augna-ráð, n. expression of the eye. augna-skot, n. a look askance,l. 286, FS. 44 (of cats). augna-slím, n. glaucoma. augna-staðr, m. the socket of the eye, Magn. 532. augna-sveinn, m. a lad leading a blind man, Str. 46. augn-tepra, u, f. hippus. augna-topt, f. the socket of the eye. augna-verkr, m. pain in the eye, Hkr. ii. 257, BS. i. 451, Pr. 471, Bjarn. 58. augna-vik, n. pl. = augnakrókr. augna-þungi, a, m. heaviness of the eye, Hkr. ii. 257.

Possible runic inscription in Younger Futhark:ᛅᚢᚴᛅ
Younger Futhark runes were used from 8th to 12th centuries in Scandinavia and their overseas settlements

Abbreviations used:

A. S.
Anglo-Saxon.
Dan.
Danish.
dimin.
diminutive.
Engl.
English.
etc.
et cetera.
gen.
genitive.
gl.
glossary.
Goth.
Gothic.
Gr.
Greek.
l.
line.
Lat.
Latin.
mod.
modern.
n.
neuter.
pl.
plural.
plur.
plural.
S.
Saga.
Scot.
Scottish.
s. v.
sub voce.
Swed.
Swedish.
v.
vide.
adj.
adjective.
adverb.
adverbially.
απ. λεγ.
απαξ. λεγόμενον.
cognom.
cognomen.
compds.
compounds.
cp.
compare.
e. g.
exempli gratia.
esp.
especially.
Germ.
German.
Icel.
Iceland, Icelander, Icelanders, Icelandic.
i. e.
id est.
l. c.
loco citato.
m.
masculine.
medic.
medicine, medically.
metaph.
metaphorical, metaphorically.
nom.
nominative.
viz.
namely.
meton.
metonomy, metonomically.
astron.
astronomy, astronomically.
botan.
botanically.
q. v.
quod vide.
natom.
anatomically.
poët.
poetically.
f.
feminine.
id.
idem, referring to the passage quoted or to the translation
pref.
preface.
sing.
singular.

Works & Authors cited:

Bs.
Biskupa Sögur. (D. III.)
Edda
Edda. (C. I.)
Fas.
Fornaldar Sögur. (C. II.)
Fbr.
Fóstbræðra Saga. (D. II.)
Fél.
Félags-rit.
Fms.
Fornmanna Sögur. (E. I.)
Hervar. S.
Hervarar Saga. (C. II.)
Hm.
Hává-mál. (A. I.)
Ísl. Þjóðs.
Íslenzkar Þjóðsögur.
Nj.
Njála. (D. II.)
Orkn.
Orkneyinga Saga. (E. II.)
Hjalt.
Hjaltalín, Icelandic Botany.
Magn.
Magnús Saga jarls. (E. II.)
Fs.
Forn-sögur. (D. II.)
Hkr.
Heimskringla. (E. I.)
Sturl.
Sturlunga Saga. (D. I.)
Jónas
Jónas Hallgrímsson.
Barl.
Barlaams Saga. (F. III.)
Bjarn.
Bjarnar Saga. (D. II.)
Bær.
Bærings Saga. (G. II.)
D. N.
Diplomatarium Norvagicum. (J. II.)
Fsm.
Fjölsvinns-mál. (A. II.)
Gþl.
Gulaþings-lög. (B. II.)
Ld.
Laxdæla Saga. (D. II.)
Rb.
Rímbegla. (H. III.)
Sks.
Konungs Skugg-sjá. (H. II.)
Stj.
Stjórn. (F. I.)
Str.
Strengleikar. (G. II.)
Ver.
Veraldar Saga. (E. II.)
➞ See all works cited in the dictionary
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