Aptr

Old Norse Dictionary - aptr

Meaning of Old Norse word "aptr" in English.

As defined by the Cleasby & Vigfusson Old Norse to English dictionary:

aptr Old Norse word can mean:

aptr
and aftr (aptar, n. G. l. i. 347), adv., compar. aptar, superl. aptast, [Ulf. aftra = πάλιν], the spelling with p is borne out by the Gr. αψ.
aptr
I. loc. back, back again:
aptr
1. WITH MOTION, connected with verbs denoting to go or move, such as fara, ganga, koma, leiða, senda, snúa, sækja, etc., where aptr almost answers to Lat. re-, remittere, reducere, reverti …; gefa a., reddere; bera a., refellere; kalla a., revocare; reka a., repellere: a. hverfr lygi þá er sönnu mætir (a proverb), a lie turns back when it meets truth, Bs. i. 639. ‘aptr’ implies a notion a loco or in locum, ‘eptir’ that of remaining in loco; thus skila a. means remittere; skilja eptir, relinquere; taka a., recipere, in a bad sense; taka eptir, animum attendere; fara a., redire; vera e., remanere, etc.; fara, snúa, koma, senda, sækja, hverfa a., Nj. 260, 281, Fms. x. 395, iv. 300, Edda 30, Eg. 271, Eb. 4, Fs. 6; færa a., to repay, n. G. l. i. 20; snúast a., Lækn. 472. Without actual motion,—as of sounds; þeir heyrðu a. í rjóðrit óp, they heard shouting behind them, Fms. iv. 300; nú skal eigi prestr ganga svá langt frá kirkju at hann heyri eigi klokkur hljóð aftar (= aftr), he shall not go out of the sound of the bells, n. G. l. i. 347.
aptr
β. backwards; fram ok a., to and fro (freq.); reið hann suðr aptr, rode back again, Nj. 29; aptr á bak, supine, bent or turned back, Eg. 380; þeir settu hnakka á bak sér a., bent their necks backwards in order to be able to see, Edda 30; skreiðast a. af hestinum, to slip down backwards from the croup of a horse, to dismount, Fs. 65.
aptr
γ. connected with many verbs such as, láta, lúka a., to close, shut, opp. to láta, lúka upp, Fær. 264, Eg. 7, Landn. 162; in a reverse sense to Lat. recludere, reserere, rescindere, resolvere.
aptr
2. WITHOUT MOTION = aptan, the hind part, the back of anything; þat er maðr fram (superne), en dýr a., the fore part a man, the hind part a beast, 673. 2; síðan lagði hann at tennrnar a. við huppinn, he caught the hip with his teeth, Vígl. 21. The English aft when used of a ship; breði a. ok fram, stern and stem (of a ship), Fms. ix. 310; Sigurðr sat a. á kistunni, sate aft on the stern-chest, vii. 201; a. ok frammi, of the parts of the body (of a seal), Sks. 179. compar. aptarr, farther back, Fms. vi. 76.
aptr
II. temp. again, πάλιν, iterum: this use of the word, general as it is at present, hardly appears in old writers; they seem to have had no special expression for again, but instead of it said síðan, enn, or used a periphrase, á nýja leik, öðru sinni, annat sinn, or some other substitute. It is, however, very freq. in Goth. aftra = πάλιν, Swed. åter, Dan. atter; some passages in the Sagas come near to the mod. use, e. g. bæta a., restituere, to give back (but not temp.); segja friði a., to recal, n. G. l. i. 103; hann maelti at engi mundi þann fald a. falda, El. 20, uncertain whether loc. (backward) or iterum, most likely the former. It is now used in a great many compounds, answering to Lat. re-, cp. also endr.

Possible runic inscription in Younger Futhark:ᛅᛒᛏᚱ
Younger Futhark runes were used from 8th to 12th centuries in Scandinavia and their overseas settlements

Abbreviations used:

adv.
adverb.
compar.
comparative.
f.
feminine.
Gr.
Greek.
l.
line.
L.
Linnæus.
superl.
superlative.
Ulf.
Ulfilas.
v.
vide.
etc.
et cetera.
Lat.
Latin.
n.
neuter.
freq.
frequent, frequently.
opp.
opposed.
gl.
glossary.
cp.
compare.
Dan.
Danish.
e. g.
exempli gratia.
Goth.
Gothic.
loc.
local, locally.
mod.
modern.
Swed.
Swedish.
temp.
temporal.

Works & Authors cited:

N. G. L.
Norges Gamle Love. (B. II.)
Bs.
Biskupa Sögur. (D. III.)
Eb.
Eyrbyggja Saga. (D. II.)
Edda
Edda. (C. I.)
Eg.
Egils Saga. (D. II.)
Fms.
Fornmanna Sögur. (E. I.)
Fs.
Forn-sögur. (D. II.)
Lækn.
Lækninga-bók. (H. V.)
Nj.
Njála. (D. II.)
Fær.
Færeyinga Saga. (E. II.)
Landn.
Landnáma. (D. I.)
Sks.
Konungs Skugg-sjá. (H. II.)
Vígl.
Víglundar Saga. (D. V.)
El.
Elis Saga. (G. II.)
➞ See all works cited in the dictionary
Back