As defined by the Cleasby & Vigfusson Old Norse to English dictionary:
al-þingi Old Norse word can mean:
- n. [þing], mod. form alþing, by dropping the inflective i; the gen., however, still remains unchanged, alþingiS. The parliament or general assembly of the Icel. Commonwealth, invested with the supreme legislative and judicial power, consisting of the legislative lögrétta (q. v.), and the courts, v. dómr, fimtardómr, fjórðungsdómar; v. also goði, goðorð, lügsögumaðr, lögsaga, lögberg, and many other words referring to the constitution and functions of the alþingi. It was founded by Ulfljot about A. D. 930, Ib. ch. 3; and reformed by Thord Gellir A. D. 964, who instituted the courts and carried out the political divisions of Icel. into goðorð, fjórðungar, and þing, ch. 5. In the years 1272 and 1281 the alþing, to some extent, changed its old forms, in order to comply with the new state of thingS. In the year 1800 it was abolished altogether. A kind of parliament, under the old name alþingi, was again established in the year 1843, and sat at Reykjavík. Before the year 930 a general assembly was held in Kjalarnes, whence it was removed under the name of alþingi to the river Öxará, near to the mountain Ármannsfell. The much-debated passage in Hænsaþ. S. ch. 14—en þingit var þá undir Ármannsfelli—therefore simply means that the events referred to happened after the removal of the Kjalarnesping. The parliament at first met on the Thursday beginning the tenth week of the summer, which fell between the 11th and the 17th of June; by a law of the year 999 its opening was deferred to the next following Thursday, between the 18th and 24th of June, old style; after the union with Norway, or after A. D. 1272 or 1281, the time of meeting was further deferred to June 29. July 2 (ViS. B. v. M.) is hence called Þing-Maríumessa. The parliament lasted for a fortnight; the last day of the session, called vápnatak, because the weapons having been laid aside during the session were again taken (cp. Engl. wapentake), thus fell on the first or second Wednesday in July. As to the rules of the alþingi, vide esp. the first chapter of the þ. þ. Grág. (Kb.) i. p. 38 sqq. The most eventful years in the history of the alþingi are, A. D. 930 (foundation), 964 (reform), 1000 (introduction of Christianity), 1004 (institution of the Fifth Court), 1024 (repudiation of the attempt of the king of Norway to annex Iceland), 1096 (introduction of tithes), 1117 (first codification of laws), 1262–1264 (submission to the king of Norway), 1272 and 1281 (new codes introduced). In the year 1338 there was no alþing held because of civil disturbances, eytt alþingi ok þóttu þat údærni, Ann. S. a., Grág. (þ. þ.) Íslend. bók, Kristni S., Njála, Sturl., Árna b. S., Ó. H. (1853), ch. 114; of modern writers, vide esp. Maurer, Entsteh. des Ísl. Staates; Dasent, Introd. to Burnt Njal; some of the Introductions by Jón Sigurðsson in D. I., esp. that to the Gamli Sáttmáli of the year 1262.
- COMPDS: alþingisdómr, alþingisför, alþingishelgun, alþingislof, alþingismál, alþingisnefna, alþingisreið, alþingissátt, alþingissáttarhald, alþingissekt, alþingissektarhald.
Possible runic inscription in Younger Futhark:ᛅᛚ-ᚦᛁᚾᚴᛁ
Younger Futhark runes were used from 8th to 12th centuries in Scandinavia and their overseas settlements
- A. D.
- Anno Domini.
- Iceland, Icelander, Icelanders, Icelandic.
- q. v.
- quod vide.
- s. a.
- sub anno.
Works & Authors cited:
- Íslenzkir Annálar. (D. IV.)
- D. I.
- Diplomatarium Islandicum. (J. I.)
- Grágás. (B. I.)
- Hænsa-Þóris Saga. (D. II.)
- Konungs-bók. (B. I, C. I, etc.)
- Kristni S.
- Kristni Saga. (D. I. III.)
- Ó. H.
- Ólafs Saga Helga. (E. I.)
- Sturlunga Saga. (D. I.)