Ér

Old Norse Dictionary - ér

Meaning of Old Norse word "ér" in English.

As defined by the Cleasby & Vigfusson Old Norse to English dictionary:

ér
pl., and it, dual, spelt ier, Ó. H. 147 (twice), 205, 216 (twice), 227; [Goth. jus = ὑμεις; A. S. ge; Engl. ye, you; Germ. ihr; Swed.-Dan. I]:—ye, you. That ér and not þér is the old form is clear from the alliteration of old poems and the spelling of old MSS.: allit., ér munuð allir eiða vinna, Skv. 1. 37; it (σφώ) munut alla eiða vinna, 31; hlaðit ér jarlar eiki-köstinn, Gh. 20; lífit einir ér þátta ættar minnar, Hðm. 4; æðra óðal en ér hafit, Rm. 45 (MS. wrongly þér); ér sjáið undir stórar yðvars Græðara blæða, Lb. 44 (a poem of the beginning of the 13th century). It is often spelt so in Kb. of Sæm.; hvers bíðit ér, Hkv. 2. 4; þó þykkisk ér, Skv. 3. 36; börðusk ér bræðr ungir, Am. 93; urðu-a it glíkir, Gh. 3; ef it, id.; en ér heyrt hafit, Hým. 38; þá er (when) ér, ye, LS. 51; er it heim komit, Skv. 1. 42: ér knáttuð, Edda 103 (in a verse): in very old MSS. (12th century) no other form was ever used, e. g. er it, 623. 24: þat er ér (that which ye) heyrit, 656 A. 2. 15; ér bræðr …, mínnisk ér, ye brethren, remember ye, 7; treystisk ér, 623. 32; hræðisk eigi ér, 48. In MSS. of the middle of the 13th century the old form still occurs, e. g. Ó. H., ér hafit, 52; ér skolu, 216; þegar er ér komit, so soon as ye come, 67; sem ér mynit, 119; ér hafit, 141; til hvers er ér erot, that ye are, 151; ef ér vilit heldr, 166; ér erot allir, ye are all, 193; sem ér kunnut, 196; sem ier vilit, 205; sem ér vitoð, as ye know, 165; ef ér vilit, 208; þeim er ér sendoð, those that ye sent, 211: the Heiðarv. S. (MS. of the same time)—unz ér, (Ísl. ii.) 333: ef ér þurfut, 345; er it farit, 346 (twice); allz ér erut, id.; er ér komið, as ye come, id.; en ér sex, but ye six, 347; ok ér, and ye, 361; ér hafit þrásamliga, 363; eða it feðgar, 364: Jómsvík. S.—ef ér, (FmS. xi.) 115, 123: Mork. 9, 63, 70, 98, 103, 106, passim. It even occurs now and then in Njála (Arna-Magn. 468)—ér erut, ye are, 223; hverrar liðveizlu ér þykkisk mest þurfa, 227: ér ertuð hann, Skálda 171; Farið-a ér, fare ye not, Hkr. i. (in a verse). It is still more freq. after a dental ð, t, þ; in old MSS. that give þ for ð it runs thus—vitoþ ér, hafiþ ér, skoluþ ér, meguþ er, lifiþ ér, etc., wot ye, have ye, shall ye, may ye, live ye, etc.; hence originates by way of diæresis the regular Icel. form þér, common both to old and mod. writers; vide þú, where the other forms will be explained.

Possible runic inscription in Younger Futhark:ᛁᚱ
Younger Futhark runes were used from 8th to 12th centuries in Scandinavia and their overseas settlements

Abbreviations used:

allit.
alliteration, alliterative.
A. S.
Anglo-Saxon.
Dan.
Danish.
e. g.
exempli gratia.
Engl.
English.
etc.
et cetera.
freq.
frequent, frequently.
Germ.
German.
gl.
glossary.
Goth.
Gothic.
Icel.
Iceland, Icelander, Icelanders, Icelandic.
id.
idem, referring to the passage quoted or to the translation
l.
line.
lit.
literally.
m.
masculine.
mod.
modern.
n.
neuter.
pl.
plural.
S.
Saga.
Swed.
Swedish.
v.
vide.

Works & Authors cited:

Am.
Atla-mál. (A. II.)
Arna-Magn.
Arna-Magnacanus.
Edda
Edda. (C. I.)
Fms.
Fornmanna Sögur. (E. I.)
Gh.
Guðrúnar-hefna. (A. II.)
Hðm.
Hamðis-mál. (A. II.)
Heiðarv. S.
Heiðarvíga Saga. (D. II.)
Hkr.
Heimskringla. (E. I.)
Hkv.
Helga-kviða Hundingsbana. (A. II.)
Hým.
Hýmis-kviða. (A. I.)
Kb.
Konungs-bók. (B. I, C. I, etc.)
Ls.
Loka-senna. (A. I.)
Magn.
Magnús Saga jarls. (E. II.)
Mork.
Morkinskinna. (E. I.)
Ó. H.
Ólafs Saga Helga. (E. I.)
Rm.
Rígsmál. (A. II.)
Skálda
Skálda. (H. I.)
Skv.
Sigurðar-kviða. (A. II.)
Sæm.
Sæmundar Edda. (A, C. I.)
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