Ár

Old Norse Dictionary - ár

Meaning of Old Norse word "ár" in English.

As defined by the Cleasby & Vigfusson Old Norse to English dictionary:

ár Old Norse word can mean:

ár
1. n. [Goth. jêr; A. S. gear; Engl. year; Germ. jabr; the Scandin. idioms all drop the j, as in ungr, young; cp. also the Gr. ωρα; Lat. hora; Ulf. renders not only ετος but also sometimes καιρός and χρόνος by jêr].
ár
I. a year, = Lat. annus, divided into twelve lunar months, each of 30 days, with four intercalary days, thus making 364 days; as the year was reckoned about the middle of the 10th century (the original calculation probably only reckoned 360 days, and made up the difference by irregular intercalary months). About the year 960 Thorstein Surt introduced the sumarauki (intercalary week), to be inserted every seventh year, thus bringing the year up to 365 dayS. After the introduction of Christianity (A. D. 1000) the sumarauki was made to harmonize with the Julian calendar; but from A. D. 1700 with the Gregorian calendar; v. the words sumarauki, hlaupár, mánuðr, vika, etc., Íb. ch. 4, Rb. 6, FmS. i. 67; telja árum, to count the time by years, Vsp. 6; í ári, used adverb., at present, as yet, Ó. H. 41, 42 (in a verse).
ár
II. = Lat. annona, plenty, abundance, fruitfulness; the phrase, friðr ok ár, FmS. vii. 174, Hkr. Yngl. ch. 8–12; ár ok fésæla, Hkr. l. c.; þá var ár urn öll lönd, id.; létu hlaða skip mörg af korni ok annarri gæzku, ok flytja svá ár í Danmörku, FmS. xi. 8, SkS. 323, FaS. i. 526, Hom. 68; gott ár, Eg. 39; blota til árs, FmS. i. 34.
ár
III. the name of the Rune RUNE (a), Skálda 176; in the A. S. and Goth. Runes the j has the name jêr, gêr, according to the Germ. and Engl. pronunciation of this word; vide p. 2, col. 1.
ár
COMPDS: áratal, ársbót.
ár
2. adv.
ár
I. Lat. olim [Ulf. air = παλαί; Engl. yore], used nearly as a substantive followed by a gen., but only in poetry; in the phrase, ár var alda, in times of yore, in principio, Vsp. 3, Hkv. 2. 1: also, ár var þaz (= þat es), the beginning of some of the mythical and heroical poems, Skv. 3. i, Gkv. 1. 1; cp. árdagar.
ár
II. Lat. mane [A. S. ær; O. H. G. êr; cp. Gr. ηρι-, Engl. early, Icel. árla], rare, (the prolonged form árla is freq.); it, however, still exists in the Icel. common phrase, með morgunsárinu (spelt and proncd. in a single word), primo diluculo; elsewhere poet, or in laws, ár of morgin, early of a morning,m. verse 1, Grág. ii. 280; rísa ár, to rise early, Hm. 58, 59; ár né um nætr, Hkv. 2. 34, etc.; í ár, adverb. = early, Ísl. ii. (Hænsa Þór. S.) 161; snemma í ár, Ld. 46, MS., where the Ed. um morgininn í ár, FaS. i. 503: it also sometimes means for ever, svá at ár Hýmir ekki mælti, for an age he did not utter a word, remained silent as if stupefied,m. 25, Lex. Poët.; ara þúfu á skaltu ár sitja, Skm. 27; cp. the mod. phrase, ár ok síð og allan tíð, early and late and always. In compds = Lat. matutinus.
ár
3. f. [A. S. ár; Engl. oar; Swed. åre], an oar, old form of nom., dat., acc. sing. ́r; dat. ́ru or áru, Eb. 60 new Ed., but commonly ár; pl. árar, Eg. 221, 360, FmS. viii. 189, 417: metaph. in the phrases, koma eigi ár sinni fyrir borð, to be under restraint, esp. in a bad sense, of one who cannot run as fast as he likes, Eb. 170; vera á árum e-s = undir ára burði e-s, v. below; draga árar um e-t, to contend about a thing, the metaphor taken from a rowing match, Fær. 159; taka djúpt í árinni, to dip too deep, overdo a thing.
ár
COMPDS: árarblað, áraburðr, áragangr, árakló, áralag, árarhlumr, árarhlutr, árarstubbi, árartog, árartré.

Possible runic inscription in Younger Futhark:ᛅᚱ
Younger Futhark runes were used from 8th to 12th centuries in Scandinavia and their overseas settlements

Abbreviations used:

A. S.
Anglo-Saxon.
cp.
compare.
Engl.
English.
f.
feminine.
Germ.
German.
gl.
glossary.
Goth.
Gothic.
Gr.
Greek.
l.
line.
Lat.
Latin.
m.
masculine.
n.
neuter.
S.
Saga.
Scandin.
Scandinavia, Scandinavian.
Ulf.
Ulfilas.
A. D.
Anno Domini.
adverb.
adverbially.
ch.
chapter.
etc.
et cetera.
v.
vide.
id.
idem, referring to the passage quoted or to the translation
l. c.
loco citato.
adv.
adverb.
gen.
genitive.
freq.
frequent, frequently.
Icel.
Iceland, Icelander, Icelanders, Icelandic.
mod.
modern.
O. H. G.
Old High German.
proncd.
pronounced.
acc.
accusative.
dat.
dative.
esp.
especially.
metaph.
metaphorical, metaphorically.
nom.
nominative.
pl.
plural.
sing.
singular.
Swed.
Swedish.

Works & Authors cited:

Fms.
Fornmanna Sögur. (E. I.)
Íb.
Íslendinga-bók. (D. I.)
Ó. H.
Ólafs Saga Helga. (E. I.)
Rb.
Rímbegla. (H. III.)
Vsp.
Völuspá. (A. I.)
Eg.
Egils Saga. (D. II.)
Fas.
Fornaldar Sögur. (C. II.)
Hkr.
Heimskringla. (E. I.)
Hom.
Homiliu-bók. (F. II.)
Sks.
Konungs Skugg-sjá. (H. II.)
Skálda
Skálda. (H. I.)
Gkv.
Guðrúnar-kviða. (A. II.)
Hkv.
Helga-kviða Hundingsbana. (A. II.)
Skv.
Sigurðar-kviða. (A. II.)
Grág.
Grágás. (B. I.)
Hðm.
Hamðis-mál. (A. II.)
Hm.
Hává-mál. (A. I.)
Hým.
Hýmis-kviða. (A. I.)
Ld.
Laxdæla Saga. (D. II.)
Lex. Poët.
Lexicon Poëticum by Sveinbjörn Egilsson, 1860.
Skm.
Skírnis-mál. (A. I.)
Eb.
Eyrbyggja Saga. (D. II.)
Fær.
Færeyinga Saga. (E. II.)
➞ See all works cited in the dictionary
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